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News updates

(For news updates older than two weeks, please visit our news archive.)

30 July 2015: Israeli forces have been accused of carrying out war crimes, and possible crimes against humanity, in a report released on Wednesday by Amnesty International. The London-based group made the accusations in their report - the latest in a series of inquiries into possible violations of international law by both Israel and Hamas - in that there was 'strong evidence' of Israel carrying out these crimes in Rafah during last year's conflict with Hamas.

30 July 2015: Russia has used its veto at the United Nations to block a draft resolution to set up an international tribunal into the MH17 air disaster of July 2014. The draft resolution would have established an international tribunal to prosecute those suspected of downing the Malaysia Airlines passenger airliner last year in Eastern Ukraine. Russia was the only nation at the 15-Member UN Security Council to oppose the move at the session in New York on Wednesday, triggering widespread condemnation.

29 July 2015: A Saudi-led air raid in Yemen last week that left at least 65 civilians dead in a residential compound may have amounted to war crimes, Human Rights Watch warned on Tuesday. In their report on the strikes, the human rights group called on the United Nations Human Rights Council to set up a commission to investigate the recent attack, as well as others that have resulted in civilian deaths.

29 July 2015: The Supreme Court in Bangladesh on Wednesday upheld the death sentence handed down to a top opposition politician for war crimes committed during the country's 1971 independence conflict against Pakistan. Bangladesh's highest court dismissed Salahuddin Quader Chowdhury's, who is a senior member of the main opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), appeal against a death sentence for genocide and torture handed down by the International Crimes Tribunal two years ago.

28 July 2015: Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, the son of Libya's former dictator Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, and eight others have been sentenced to death today by a Libyan court after they were found guilty of committing war crimes in the 2011 revolution. Saif al-Islam is currently being held by a former rebel group in Zintan, who refuse to hand him over. He was not present in court and gave evidence via video link. Among those also convicted and facing death by firing squad is the former head of intelligence for the Gaddafi regime, Abdullah al-Senussi, as is former PM Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi.

28 July 2015: The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) has made proposals for the creation of a hybrid court, with no amnesty, to investigate and prosecute those responsible for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and other serious crimes committed during the civil war in South Sudan. The IGAD states in its proposal, which is being considered by government and opposition, that no amnesty will be given to any individuals responsible for committing crimes from 15 December 2013, regardless of their official capacity.

28 July 2015: The prosecution in a war crimes tribunal in Dhaka, Bangladesh, has pressed five counts of charges against 12 persons, including former Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and Jamaat-e-Islami Member of Parliament Shakhawat Hossain, for their alleged involvement in crimes against humanity during the Liberation War in 1971. The prosecution submitted the charges to the International Crimes Tribunal-1, and the tribunal has fixed September 8 to decide whether it will accept the charges.  

27 July 2015: The trial of a former Soviet army officer accused of being a Taliban fighter has been postponed by a day until Tuesday. The suspect, Irek Hamidullin, is the first military prisoner from Afghanistan to be tried in a U.S. federal court and is accused of 15 counts of terrorism, ranging from supporting terrorists to firearm charges stemming from his orchestration of an attack on an Afghan Border Police base in 2009. The postponement of the trial was ordered by the U.S. District Court judge in Richmond on Friday.

27 July 2015: In the early hours of Thursday morning last week, Belgian officials arrested two former Guantanamo Bay inmates on charges of terrorism. According to Belgium's federal prosecutor's office, the two former detainees were under police surveillance and were arrested along with three others in Antwerp on suspicion of seeking recruits to fight in Syria.  

27 July 2015: The Brazilian State of Rio de Janeiro has recognised the Armenian Genocide in a new law enacted by the governor of Rio de Janeiro, Luiz Fernando Pezão, on Friday last week. The law declares April 24 as "Day of recognition and memory of the victims of the Armenian Genocide". Rio de Janeiro is the fourth State in Brazil that recognises the Genocide, along with Parana, Ceara and Sao Paulo.

24 July 2015: The Belgian Parliament has passed a resolution calling for the recognition of the 1915 killings of  Armenians by Ottoman Turks as genocide in a vote on Thursday. The resolution, submitted by the Belgian government, describes the 1915 incidents as 'genocide' and also calls on historians to continue their efforts to shed light on the incidents.

24 July 2015: The trial of Guatemalan former leader Efraín Ríos Montt resumed yesterday in Guatemala. Ríos Montt faces charges of genocide and crimes against humanity committed against the Mayan Ixil peoples during the armed conflict that took place in the 1980's. He was convicted of genocide and crimes against humanity by a Guatemalan Court in 2013, but ten days later the verdict was annulled by the Constitutional Court, requiring a retrial which has been repeatedly stalled.

24 July 2015: After coordinated searches at various locations in Gothenburg on Thursday, the Swedish Security Service arrested two persons on suspicion of terrorist offences, for murder in Syria. The Security Service has issued an arrest warrant for one more individual.

23 July 2015: In a report released this week, Human Rights Watch (HRW) accuses South Sudanese government forces and allied fighters of committing a 'very widespread and systematic pattern of abuse' during the current conflict in South Sudan. HRW documents the abuses that took place between April and June this year, many of which they say amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity.

23 July 2015: A report from the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) International Maritime Bureau (IMB), published on Wednesday, reveals that incidents of piracy have spiked in the first half of 2015, despite no incident being reported off the coast of Somalia. A total of 134 incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships were reported to the IMB Piracy Reporting Centre in the first six months of 2015, an increase on the 116 reports for the same period in 2014. The report highlights a continuing trend, averaging one attack every two weeks, in South East Asia in the hijacking of small coastal tankers by maritime pirates. 

22 July 2015: A meeting in Brussels on Monday resulted in the European Union Foreign Ministers agreeing to several measures to aid Tunisia with security in light of the terrorist attacks that were carried out in the country last month. The measures seek to assist economically and contemplate sending military advisors to Tunisia to train security forces on protecting key tourist areas.

22 July 2015: On Monday, Oskar Groening, a former Nazi SS officer known as the "accountant of Auschwitz", submitted an appeal in the German Federal Court of Justice against the four-year prison sentence imposed on him last week in relation to the new wave of investigations of Nazi war crimes suspects. His lawyer argues that the court that convicted him incorrectly rejected a reduction in the sentence because of delays in the proceedings.

22 July 2015: The Extraordinary African Chambers has adjourned the trial of the former Chadian leader, Hissène Habré, on charges of war crimes, crimes against humanity and torture, until 7 September 2015 in order to allow defense lawyers to prepare their case. This comes after the trial, which began on Monday in Senegal, was suspended on its first day after Habré had to be removed from court.

21 July 2015: The trial of the former leader of Chad, Hissène Habré, began yesterday at the Extraordinary African Chambers (EAC) in Senegal. The former leader is accused of war crimes, crimes against humanity and torture, which are alleged to have been committed during his eight-year rule from 1982 to 1990. The case represents the first time that the courts of one African country have prosecuted a former ruler of another for alleged human rights crimes and it is also the first universal jurisdiction case to proceed to trial in Africa.

20 July 2015: The International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) has released a report in which it concludes that the Congolese judicial authorities' progress in the prosecution of international crimes committed in the DRC from 2009 to 2014 is very slow in comparison to the large number of crimes committed. The report states that Congolese laws and courts have not been able to keep up with the scale of violations, with the ICTJ offering recommendations to the Congolese government on how to advance the prosecution of international crimes in the national courts.

20 July 2015: An alleged senior member of al-Qaida is due to appear in court today at U.S. Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, faced with terrorism charges. The accused is alleged to have ordered attacks that resulted in the death of at least eight U.S. service members and faces possible life imprisonment.

17 July 2015: Today is International Justice Day, marking the adoption of the Rome Statute of the ICC on 17 July 1998. The day is a reminder of just how difficult it is to bring those responsible for the 'world's worst crimes to justice and of how crucially important it is not to give up'. The ICC has launched a global #JusticeMatters campaign to commemorate the day.

17 July 2015: The Pre-Trial Chamber I of the ICC has requested Fatou Bensouda, its chief prosecutor, to consider reopening a full criminal investigation into allegations that Israel Defence Forces (IDF) recruits committed war crimes related to the 2010 Mavi Marmara flotilla.

17 July 2015: Today marks one year since the shooting down of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 and a Dutch-led investigation into the tragedy is underway. On Thursday, Russian President Vladimir Putin told the Dutch PM that creating a UN tribunal to prosecute suspects would be 'counterproductive'.

16 July 2015: The International Crimes Tribunal of Bangladesh sentenced Forkan Mollick, a member of Jamaat-e-Islami party, Bangladesh's largest Islamist party, on charges that he committed rape and murder in 1971 during Banglasdesh's war for independence from Pakistan.

16 July 2015: Following an intense investigation, the FBI confirmed in a five-page report the authenticity of controversial photographs showing instances of torture against Syrian political prisoners under the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's regime. A top State Department official said that the FBI report could provide a fresh impetus for the international war crimes prosecutors to bring criminal charges against al-Assad.  

16 July 2015:
The prosecutors in Kuwait announced on Tuesday that 29 people will face trial for their participation in the suicide bombing of a Shiite mosque on 26 June 2015, which claimed the lives of 26 people and critically injured 227 others. The charges against them range from inciting violence and joining an extremist group to illegal possession of explosives. The attack is considered to be a part of the strategic terrorism of ISIS, which considers Shia to be heretics.  

New cases, briefs and videos

NEW CASE: The case of Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Jadranko Palija is now available online. Jadranko Palija, a former member of the Serbian army, was accused of having committed war crimes against civilians and crimes against humanity during the armed conflict in the former Yugoslavia. On 28 November 2007, Palija was found guilty on all charges by the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina and sentenced to 28 years in prison. He appealed against his conviction, but this did not help him: on 24 April 2008, the Appellate Panel of the Court ruled that the Trial Panel had been correct in both its analysis of the facts and the application of the law. Therefore, the conviction and prison sentence were both confirmed.

NEW CASE: The case of Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Appellant, v. Léon Mugesera, Gemma Uwamariya, Irenée Rutema, Yves Rusi, Carmen Nono, Mireille Urumuri and Marie-Grâce Hoho, Respondents is now available online. Léon Mugesera, a former politician  in Rwanda, fled Rwanda in 1993. Mugesera, together with his wife and their five children, sought asylum in Canada, which was granted. However, in 1995, the Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) became aware of the arrest warrant and issued an order to deport Mugesera to Rwanda for trial. The Federal Court of Appeal held that the deportation order should not have been issued as there was not sufficient evidence that Mugesera had indeed been involved in the Rwandan genocide as alleged. However, the Canadian Supreme Court quashed this decision on 28 June 2005, ruling that the Court of Appeal had applied an incorrect standard of review and that, in fact, the IRB had been right all along.

NEW CASE: The case of Ali Zaki Mousa and others, claimants, v. Secretary of State for Defence, defendant, and Legal Services Commission, interested party is now available online. The claimant in Mousa v. UK, Ali Zaki Mousa, represents about 100 Iraqis – with the possible addition of 100 more after intervention – who were allegedly tortured or otherwise ill-treated during their detention at British military bases in Iraq, often without being charged. The Court found that the current investigating bodies were too much intertwined with the army itself and did not constitute independent bodies of judicial review, as required by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Therefore, the Secretary of State was ordered to initiate proper investigations.

The case of the Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Abduladhim Maktouf is now available online. Abduladhim Maktouf was arrested on 12 June 2004 in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), initially on suspicion of economic crimes committed in the context of the electronics business he was working in. However, following in-depth investigations, he was indicted and found guilty of war crimes against civilians, and he received a five-year prison sentence.

NEW CASE: The case of the Public Prosecutor v. M.P. et al. is now available online. The Zadar County Court of Croatia, in its verdict of 24 April 1997, convicted in absentia 19 officers of the so-called Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA) for the siege of the city of Zadar, which caused the death of at least 30 civilians and the destruction of significant parts of the city. The officers were found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity and sentenced to prison sentences that ranged from ten to 20 years. However, as they had left Croatia before the initial indictment, the convicted persons have not yet been caught.  

The case of the Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Željko Lelek is now available online. On 19 February 2009, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)’s Appellate Panel issued a second instance verdict in the case against Željko Lelek, upholding his conviction for crimes against humanity. However, in the second instance his sentence was increased from 13 to 16 years’ imprisonment as the Appellate Panel attached greater weight to the aggravating circumstance in the case.

NEW CASE: The case of the Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Zijad Kurtović is now available online. Zijad Kurtović, a commander of a military police platoon of the Bosnian army, was accused of involvement in war crimes committed during the war between Croatia and Bosnia (1992-1995). In first instance, Kurtović was found guilty on all charges and sentenced to 11 years’ imprisonment. Kurtović appealed on several grounds, arguing that the first instance Panel had erred in law (using the wrong law) and in fact (wrongly established certain facts). The prosecution also appealed against the sentence, which was, in its view, too lenient. The Appellate Panel partly agreed with Kurtović where it concerned the classification of the crimes. However, the findings on the facts remained further unchanged. Therefore, the Appellate Panel amended the conviction to only include war crimes against civilians and the wanton destruction of religious monuments. The prosecutor’s appeal was dismissed; the 11-year prison sentence was upheld.

NEW CASE: The case of the Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Radmilo Vuković aka Rade is now available online. Radmilo Vuković was born on 28 July 1952 in the village of Rataje located in the municipality of Foča, southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. In his capacity as member of the military forces of the so-called Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as “Republika Srpska”, Vuković allegedly had sexual intercourse with a woman from the Foča municipality without her consent. On 13 August 2008, the Appeals Panel of the War Crimes section of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina did not find Vuković guilty, because the main piece of evidence provided by the victim and presented before the Appellate Panel contained inconsistencies. Therefore, it could not be established beyond reasonable doubt that Vuković raped the woman.

NEW CASE: The case of  the Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Mirko Todorović and Miloš Radić is now available online. Todorović and Radić were found guilty of participating in an attack conducted in Bratunac on 20 May 1992, which was directed against Bosnian Muslim (Bosniak) civilians. On that day, Todorović and four other members of the Serbian army arrested 14 Bosniak civilians and brought them to a house where one of the civilians was killed. Todorović, together with Radić, did not allow the other civilians to leave the house. The civilians were beaten, cursed, and their money and valuable items were taken away. Subsequently, the civilians were brought to a slope on a nearby creek, lined up and killed.

NEW CASE: The case of Polyukhovich v. The Commonwealth of Australia and Another is available online. Ivan Timofeyevich Polyukhovich was born in the village of Serniki in the Pinsk region, Ukraine. Polyukhovich became an Australian citizen in 1958. In January 1990, a case was brought against Polyukhovich in Australia for his alleged involvement in the mass killing of approximately 850 people from the Jewish ghetto in Serniki village and for killing 24 other people between August and September 1942. Their bodies had been exhumed in June and July 1990. On 18 May 1993, Polyukhovich was acquitted because there was not sufficient evidence to continue with the case.

NEW CASE: The case of the Office of the War Crimes Prosecutor v. Miroljub Vujović et al. is now available online. The accused in the case were all members of the Vukovar Territorial Defence force (TO) or of the volunteer unit called “Leva Supoderica”. On 18 November 1991, members of the Croatian armed forces surrendered themselves to the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). As a result, they had to enjoy certain rights and protection under international law because they were prisoners of war. For instance, they had to be treated humanely, should not be beaten or killed. Nevertheless, they were taken to the Ovčara farm in the Vukovar municipality on 20 and 21 November 1991, where they were brutally beaten, injured, and killed by members of the TO force (including the accused). Approximately 200 Croatians were killed at the Ovčara farm.  

The case of the Ad Hoc Prosecutors v. Timbul Silaen is now available online. Timbul Silaen worked as police chief in East Timor in 1999. As such, he was responsible for the security during the independence referendum held in the country on 30 August 1999. Before and after the referendum, deadly incidents took place between people in favour of East Timor’s secession from the Republic of Indonesia and the pro-Indonesian supporters. Approximately 1000 people died, 80% of the territory was destroyed, and 250,000 people were forcibly evacuated to Indonesia. Silaen was prosecuted because as a commander he allegedly failed to stop his subordinates from committing crimes and also failed to bring them to court in order to be prosecuted. In 2002, the Indonesian Ad Hoc Tribunal for East Timor did not found Silaen guilty as a commander because it could not be proven beyond a reasonable doubt that his subordinates had committed the crimes.

NEW ICD BRIEF: Laura Paredi, PhD Candidate at the University of Milan, has written a new ICD Brief focusing on "The War Crime of Terror: An analysis of international jurisprudence". Check it out here.  

The T.M.C. Asser Instituut in The Hague is looking for two university and university of applied science students in the final stages of their bachelor’s degree or during/after their master’s degree, with a solid background in international criminal law, to work on the International Crimes Database (ICD). Students who wish to apply should send their letter of motivation, a CV and a recent (within the last year) academic writing sample to by Wednesday 24 June C.O.B. Interviews will take place in the week of 6 July 2015. The envisaged start date is 15 July 2015. For more information see here and here.

NEW CASE: The case of The Queen (on the application of Maya Evans) v. Secretary of State for Defence is now available online. The case came as a result of information that Afghan terror detainees transferred by the British Armed Forces to the Afghan National Directorate of Security (NDS) were beaten and physically mistreated. Maya Evans, a U.K. peace activist, sought to stop that practice and brought a case before the British High Court of Justice. On 25 June 2010, the Court decided that there was a chance that detainees were indeed mistreated at the NDS detention facility in Kabul. Therefore, the Court banned detainee transfers to this NDS facility. Transfers to the NDS facilities in Kandahar and Lashkar Gah remained allowed, although the Court imposed a series of ‘safeguards’ and monitoring arrangements on all future transfers of detainees.

NEW CASE: The case of The Deputy General Prosecutor for Serious Crimes v. Col. Herman Sedyono et al. is now available online. The defendants in this case took part in a widespread or systematic attack directed against civilians that were in favour of an independent East Timor. One of the accused, Herman Sedyono, was the Bupati (District Administrator) of the Covalima District, one of the 13 districts in East Timor. As such, he was bearing the primary responsibility for maintaining peace and security in the region. Most of the other accused were Commander or just member of the Indonesian security authorities (TNI) or the Indonesian police force (POLRI), which were both promoting autonomy within the Republic of Indonesia. In 1999, the Mahidi and the Laksaur pro-Indonesian militia groups, with the help of the TNI and POLRI, and with support from the Covalima District administration, repeatedly committed attacks against the Covalima population (mainly against those that were in favour of independence). The 16 accused were charged with encouraging, assisting and failing to stop, arrest or prosecute the perpetrators of the crimes. 

The ICD invites submissions of short articles for publication in the online paper series of the ICD, the ICD Briefs. Please send an abstract of your submission (500 words, incl. brief biographies or author affiliations) to by 1 July. Please also include a CV with your submission. Authors of selected abstracts will be informed by 15 July. Selected authors should be prepared to submit a full paper for review by 1 October. Find out more about the selection process and guidelines for ICD Briefs here.

NEW CASE: The case of The Ad Hoc Prosecutor v. Lt. Col. Inf. Soedjarwo is now available online. Lieutenant Colonel Soedjarwo was a military commander of the Indonesian National Army (TNI) in the district of Dili between 9 August 1999 and 20 December 1999. Soedjarwo was found guilty of crimes against humanity because he failed to prevent his troops from attacking the Diocese office of Dili and the residence of Archbishop Belo in Dili on 4 and 6 September 1999. At least 13 civilians who were seeking refuge at these two places were killed during the attack.

NEW CASE: The case of Teófila Ochoa Lizarbe et al v. Telmo Ricardo Hurtado Hurtado is now available online. On 14 August 1985, 60 women, children and elderly men were killed in the highlands village of Accomarca in Peru’s southern Andean region of Ayacucho. This massacre is known as the Accomarca Massacre. The plaintiffs brought a complaint against Telmo Ricardo Hurtado Hurtado (Second Lieutenant (Subteniente) in the Peruvian Army) who was responsible for the command of the soldiers that committed the killings. The plaintiffs sought justice on behalf of all the members of the Asociación de Familiares Afectados por la Violencia Política del Distrito de Accomarca (Association of Relatives of the Victims of Political Violence in Accomarca) who lost relatives in the massacre. Hurtado was found guilty for the crimes committed in connection with the Accomarca Massacre. On 4 March 2008, the District Court for the Southern District of Florida ordered Hurtado to pay $37 million in damages to the plaintiffs.  

The case of the Public Prosecutor v. Oie Hee Koi and connected appeals is now available online. During the fighting between Indonesia and Malaysia, twelve Malaysian Chinese members of the Indonesian Air Force who were heavily armed, infiltrated into Malaysia (ten by parachute and two by boat). They were arrested, convicted pursuant to Malaysian law and sentenced to death. The Federal Court of Malaysia held that two members were protected pursuant to international law, in particular the Geneva Prisoners of War Convention of 1949. On appeal, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council decided that they were not protected under the 1949 Geneva Convention because they were nationals of Malaysia (the state that detained them). Therefore, they could be prosecuted under national law for offences against that law.

NEW CASE: The case of Physicians for Human Rights and others v. Prime Minister of Israel and others & Gisha Legal Centre for Freedom of Movement and others v. Minister of Defence is now available online. When Hamas, a Palestinian armed resistance group, came into power in Gaza, southern Israel was increasingly subject to heavy missile attacks. On 27 December 2008, the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) began a large-scale military operation that Israel initiated in the Gaza Strip in order to stop the shooting of mortars. During that operation, also known as “Operation Cast Lead”, the IDF entered the Gaza Strip and attacked targets used by Hamas. In January 2009, two organizations filed a complaint against Israel and claimed that during the operation, the IDF did not protect medical centers and personnel, did not help with the transfer of wounded people, and did not supply electricity to the Gaza Strip. The Israeli Supreme Court found that Israel was acting reasonably and had not violated any international rules.   

The case of the Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Dragoje Paunović is now available online. Dragoje Paunović was born on 19 June 1954 in the town of Mojkovac in northern Montenegro. Paunović was a senior officer of a small military formation attached to the Battalion of Rogatica, a battalion part of the Bosnian Serb Army. In the period May to September 1992, attacks were carried out by military and police forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina and by Serbian paramilitary formations against the Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks) living in the municipality of Rogatica. On 15 August 1992,  Paunović used 27 Bosniaks as protection during a clash between the army of the Republika Srpska and the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosniaks were detained in the Rasadnik detention camp in Rogatica, and later driven to the town of Jacen in Rogatica where 24 of them were subsequently killed under the orders of Paunović. The Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina found Paunović guilty of crimes against humanity and sentenced him to 20 years in prison.

NEW VIDEO: On Tuesday, 17 March 2015, Raji Sourani, Director of the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights, and Shawan Jabarin, Director of Al-Haq, gave a lecture in the context of the Supranational Criminal Law Lecture Series, entitled: "Palestine and the International Criminal Court". The video can be found here.

NEW CASE: The case of Mamani et al. v. Sánchez de Lozada, and Mamani et al. v. Sánchez Berzain is now available online. It concerns the case of nine relatives of people killed during a series of national protests in Bolivia in October 2003, who brought a case in the U.S. against the former President of Bolivia, Sánchez de Lozada, and the former Minister of Defence of Bolivia, Sánchez Berzaín. The plaintiffs claimed that Sánchez de Lozada and Sánchez Berzaín were responsible for the killing of more than 400 people in Bolivia during the suppression of the protests directed against the government’s policies. In particular, the plaintiffs claimed that Sánchez de Lozada and Sánchez Berzaín gave orders to the Bolivian security forces to use deadly force against protestors. The plaintiffs asked for compensation. On 29 August 2011, a U.S. Court of Appeals dismissed their claims because they had not presented enough evidence to establish a link between both Sánchez de Lozada and Sánchez Berzaín and the killings.

NEW CASE: The case of Her Majesty the Queen (Prosecutor) v. Désiré Munyaneza is now available online. Désiré Munyaneza was born in December 1966 in Rwanda. Between the beginning of April and the end of July 1994, Hutus killed approximately 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus in Rwanda. During that period, Munyaneza was one of the leaders of the Interahamwe Hutu paramilitary organisation in Butare, which played a major role in the 1994 Rwandan genocide. In 1997, Munyaneza fled to Canada to avoid prosecution. However, in October 2005 he was arrested in Canada on suspicion of his involvement in the 1994 Rwandan genocide. In May 2009, the Quebec Superior Court found Munyaneza guilty for the criminal offences of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes for abducting, raping, sexually assaulting, and killing Tutsis, and for pillaging of their properties. He was sentenced to life in prison. 

NEW CASE: The case of Regina (on the application of Robert Lewis Manson) (Claimant) v. The Bow Street Magistrates' Court (First Defendant) and Carmarthen Justices (Second Defendant) is now available online. In March 2003, Phil Pritchard and Toby Olditch, peace activists, entered the bases of the Royal Air Force (RAF) and tried to disable the planes located there. They acted in an attempt to prevent a crime by the U.K. and the U.S., namely the preparation of a war against Iraq. Two other activists, Margaret Jones and Paul Milling, also entered the RAF base. All the activists were charged in the U.K. In their defence, they claimed that the actions of the U.K. and the U.S. were illegal. Their defence was rejected by the English courts because the alleged crime was a crime under international law but not under English criminal law.