Welcome to the International Crimes Database (ICD)
The International Crimes Database (ICD) website, hosted and maintained by the T.M.C. Asser Instituut in The Hague and supported by the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice and the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism – The Hague, offers a comprehensive database on international crimes adjudicated by national, as well as international and internationalised courts.
For more information on the project, please visit 'About us' in the top right corner of this page. For ICD briefs and video and audio, please click here.
Our aim is to become a leading and indispensable resource for users in developing a better understanding of international crimes and international criminal law more generally.
The ICD team
The Hague, 12 November 2013
(For news updates older than two weeks, please visit our news archive.
31 March 2015: Judges at the ICTY ruled on Monday that the Serbian leader Vojislav Seselj violated conditions of his provisional release and must return to detention in The Hague. Vojisla Seselj was released in November for medical treatment in Serbia. While in Serbia, he told news conferences that he would not return voluntarily before the ICTY and made statements challenging Serbian police to try to arrest him. Consequently, the appeals judges agreed in a written decision that Seselj had breached conditions of his release and ordered that he be detained and sent back to the ICTY.
NEW ON ICD: The case of Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Nisvet Gasal and Musajb Kukavica is now available online. During the armed conflict between the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and the army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (August 1993 - March 1994), Nisvet Gasal served as camp warden of the FC Iskra Stadium detention camp in Bugojno and Musajb Kukavica served as security commander of the detention camp. In that capacity, they were responsible for the unhygienic living conditions in which the detainees were held, and for a lack of food, water and medical help. They were also responsible for the harm that other guards inflicted on the detainees. Some detainees were forced to perform hard physical work while others were taken to the front line where there were a lot of shootings. On 18 September 2007, the preliminary hearing judge of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina found that Gasal and Kukavica could be charged with war crimes against civilians.
30 March 2015: A federal appeals court panel upheld the previous conviction of Beatrice Munyenyezi, a woman found guilty of lying about her role in the 1994 Rwanda genocide in order to obtain U.S. citizenship. She is currently serving a 10-year prison sentence after being convicted in 2013. The jury held that she lied about being affiliated with a political party that orchestrated much of the genocide. According to witnesses, she helped patrol one of the notorious checkpoints at which those bearing a card identifying them as Tutsis were singled out for rape and murder.
30 March 2015: Following allegations made by the Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights according to which the self-proclaimed Islamic State and other extremist groups may have committed war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide in Iraq, Switzerland appealed to the UN Security Council to prosecute these crimes under the ICC. It also reiterated its support for a similar ICC intervention in Syria.
NEW ON ICD: The case of Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Šefik Alić is now available online. Šefik Alić was born on 3 March 1968 in Dobro Selo in the municipality of Buzim, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Alić was Assistant Commander for Security of the Hamza Battalion of the army of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 5 August 1995, during the Oluja military operation, soldiers of both the Hamza Battalion and Tewfik Al Harbi captured four soldiers of the army of the Republic of Srpska Krajina. Even though the Hamza Battalion had to protect them, the four soldiers were physically and mentally abused, and Alić participated in the abuses. The four soldiers were subsequently killed by members of Tewfik Al Harbi. As Assistant Commander, Alić had a duty to punish soldiers that committed crimes under his command, but he failed to do so. On 20 January 2011, the Appellate Panel of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina found Alić guilty of war crimes against prisoners of war and sentenced him to 10 years imprisonment.
27 March 2015: A judge at the ECCC charged another former Khmer Rouge, Ao An or Ta An, with crimes against humanity. The charges cover alleged "extermination, persecution on political and religious grounds and other inhumane acts" at detention centers under the late Pol Pot's ultra-Maoist 1970s rule. At least 1.8 million Cambodians died during that time.
27 March 2015: The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture released a public statement criticizing Bulgaria for its treatment of prisoners. The report revealed that the material conditions in three of the prisons were in an "ever-worsening state of dilapidation", and that the material conditions at the prisons amounted "to inhuman and degrading treatment". It has also been identified that previous concerns regarding conditions in prisons have been expressed but that, over time, these concerns had not been addressed adequately, but had in fact worsened. The committee also emphasized that it is hoped that this report will be used "as a tool that helps the Bulgarian authorities to identify shortcomings and make the necessary changes".
NEW ON ICD: The case of The Government of the Russian Federation v. Akhmed Zakaev is now available online. Akhmed Zakaev was an envoy of the Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov. Zakaev was arrested in the UK in 2002 and his extradition was requested by the Russian Federation. The Russian Federation alleged that during the First Chechen War (1994-1996), Zakaev committed murder, wounding, false imprisonment (imprisonment not made in accordance with the law), and conspiring. On 13 November 2003, the Bow Street Magistrates' Court declined to extradite Zakaev because the Court feared he would be subjected to torture and would not receive a fair trial if he would be brought back to the Russian Federation.
26 March 2015: The Special Court for Sierra Leone rejected the request of former Liberian President, Charles Taylor, to serve his 50-year war crimes sentence in Rwanda, rather than Britain. Charles Taylor deplored the conditions of his detention and argued that the detention violates his rights because the visa process makes it nearly impossible for his family to visit him. Charles Taylor was convicted in April 2012 of 11 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity for aiding murderous rebels in Sierra Leone's 11-year civil war. He began serving his sentence in Britain in October 2013.
26 March 2015: The lawyer of a former Guantanamo detainee, Omar Khadr, requested the Court of Queen's Bench in Edmonton to release his client on bail while his US war crimes appeal is being considered. His lawyer argued that Omar Khadr's appeal is taking too long to process and his sentence may be completed before a decision is reached. However, the lawyer representing the US federal government opposed the request for bail and warned that granting bail to Omar Khadr would affect the transfer of prisoner system between the US and Canada. Omar Khadr is a Canadian citizen, captured by US forces after being found fighting in Afghanistan in 2002. He spent eight years in Guantanamo before being convicted on five charges and sentenced to eight years in prison for war crimes.
NEW ON ICD: The case of War Crimes Prosecutor v. Vladimir Kovačević aka "Rambo" is now available online. Vladimir Kovačević was a Commander of the Yugoslav Peoples’ Army (JNA) during the Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995). On 6 December 1991, Kovačević allegedly ordered his troops to bombard the city of Dubrovnik. As a result, two people were killed, three others were seriously wounded, six buildings were destroyed, and 46 buildings were substantially damaged. In February 2001, Kovačević was officially charged with violation of the laws of war (attack against civilians and civilian objects). Even though Kovačević was initially to be tried at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), he was declared mentally sick and not fit to stand trial. In November 2006, the ICTY referred the case to the authorities of the Republic of Serbia. On 26 July 2007, the Serbian Office of the War Crimes Prosecutor issued an indictment against Kovačević, charging him with war crimes against civilians.
25 March 2015: The Australian Government announced that the Australian counter-terrorism forces precluded about 200 suspected militant supporters from leaving the country in an operation to block recruiting by Islamic State and other jihadist groups in the Middle East.
25 March 2015: A court in Chad sentenced seven ex-policemen to life imprisonment for committing torture during the rule of former President Hissene Habre. These men include Mahamat Djibrine, considered by investigators as one of the "most feared torturers in Chad", and Saleh Younouss, a former senior official in Hissene Habre's notorious Directorate of Documentation and Security Directorate.
NEW ON ICD: The case of Prosecutor’s Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Nikola Andrun is now available online. Nikola Andrun, born on 22 November 1957, was during the second half of 1993 a deputy head of the Gabela detention camp in the municipality of Čapljina (Bosnia and Herzegovina) where Bosniak civilians were detained. As deputy head, Andrun took detainees out of the Gabela detention camp on several occasions and subjected them to interrogations, beatings and acts of torture. Between July and September 1993, numerous incidents of detainee abuse took place during which Andrun was present, either as an observer or as a direct participant. Some of the detainees disappeared but their remains were later exhumed and identified. Andrun was found guilty for war crimes against Bosniak civilians and was sentenced to 13 years in prison.
24 March 2015: Human Rights Watch warned the Cambodian government that it should act on charges issued against criminal suspects by a co-investigating judge at the ECCC or the UN should withdraw its participation from the court and international donors should end their funding. Earlier this month, a judge at the ECCC charged in absentia two former local Khmer Rouge leaders, Im Chem and Meas Muth, with crimes against humanity and war crimes committed between 1975 and 1979. However, due to a national policy of non-cooperation, the Cambodian judge refused to forward the charges to the police, who have also refused to act on the charges.
23 March 2015: The case of Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Damir Ivanković, a.k.a. "Dado" is now available online. Damir Ivanković was a member of the Prijedor police station and the police intervention platoon from Prijedor. He pleaded guilty of escorting a convoy consisting of at least 16 buses, tractor-trailers, trucks and truck-trailers carrying more than 1,200 predominantly Muslim and some Croat civilian, who were detained at the Bosnian Serb-run Trnopolje concentration camp. Ivanković further admitted that when the convoy reached Mount Vlašić, he and other members of the police intervention platoon and the Prijedor police separated more than 200 men. They subsequently boarded them on two buses and brought them to a location called Korićanske stijene on Mount Vlašić. There, Ivanković and the others fired at them, threw hand grenades from the top of the precipice, and opened fire at the dead bodies. In total, more than 200 men were killed and only 12 survived. Ivanković was sentenced to 14 years in prison.
23 March 2015: Raed Jaser and Chiheb Esseghaier have been found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment by a court in Canada on terrorism-related charges related to a foiled 2013 plot to derail a passenger train traveling from New York to Toronto. The prosecutors alleged that the plan to derail the passenger train was motivated by Islamic extremism and guided by members of al-Qaida.
20 March 2015: Poland cleared four Polish soldiers of war crimes over the killing of six civilians during a patrol in the village of Nangar Khel, in southeastern Afghanistan, in 2007. They were however convicted of lesser charges for which three of them were given suspended sentences. Their trial was the first time in more than 70 years when Poland's military had been involved in a war crimes prosecution.
20 March 2015: Serbian police on Wednesday arrested eight men suspected of having a direct role in the killing of more than 1.000 Muslim men and boys during the Srebrenica massacre. It has been reported that among the arrested men is Nedeljko Milidragovic, a Serbian commander during the Bosnian Civil War dubbed "Nedjo the Butcher".
NEW ON ICD: The case of Ana Chavez, Cecilia Santos, Jose Calderon, Erlinda Franco and Daniel Alvarado v. Nicolas Carranza is now available online. Colonel Nicholas Carranza served nearly thirty years as an officer in the armed forces of El Salvador. Later, he was El Salvador’s Vice-Minister of Defence and Public Security from October 1979 until January 1981. In this period, the Salvadoran Security Forces carried out systematic repression and human rights abuses against opponents of the military dictatorship that ruled the country at the time. In 2003, the Center for Justice and Accountability and the Tennessee law firm of Bass, Berry & Sims filed a complaint against Carranza on behalf of five plaintiffs. In 2005, a jury found Carranza guilty for the abduction, torture, insult, imprisonment and killing of the plaintiffs. He was ordered to pay $6 million in damages. In 2009, the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit upheld the jury’s verdict.
19 March 2015: Ukraine's Security Service has reportedly forwarded three books to Ukraine's Prosecutor General, with evidence of war crimes allegedly committed by Russian-backed militants in Eastern Ukraine. The documents are destined to be used by the ICC. The Ukrainian Prime Minister, Arseniy Yatsenyuk, also requested, last week, a Russian documentary trailer about Moscow's takeover of Crimea to be sent to the ICC.
19 March 2015: The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein, expressed concern with regard to the trial of former President of Maldives, Mohammed Nasheed, sentenced earlier this month to 13 years imprisonment for terrorism-related charges. The Commissioner identified several flaws in the trial process including: the trial beginning one day after Nasheed's arrest and sentencing completed after only 19 days.
NEW ON ICD: The case of Prosecutor's Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Blagoje Golubović is now available online. Blagoje Golubović was born in Strganci, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on 18 April 1965. He was charged with participating in the plan of the forces of the Serb Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (later known as Republika Srpska) to kill the non-Serb civilians of the municipality of Foča. Golubović was charged with crimes against humanity. On 6 July 2009, the Prosecutor’s Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina dropped the charges against Golubović. On 10 July 2009, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina passed a verdict dismissing the charges against Golubović.
18 March 2015: The UN Commission of Inquiry investigating war crimes in Syria called for the establishment of a special tribunal to prosecute the widespread human rights abuses which took place in the course of the four-year conflict. It was contended that a referral of the situation to the ICC by the UN Security Council would still be preferable, but as long as Russia and China block such a referral, the commission is looking at other means to bring justice for the atrocities committed in Syria.
18 March 2015: The UN Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in Eritrea reported gross human rights violations taking place in the country. Following a four-month investigation, the Commission identified repeated instances of torture and a high number of detentions.
NEW ON ICD: The case of Public Prosecutor v. Abdullah Faqirzada is now available online. Abdoullah Faqirzada, an Afghan national born in 1950, was an officer of the Afghan security police force KhAD (Khadamat-e Etela'at-e Dawlati) in the period 1979-1989. This security police force was known for committing various human rights violations against anti-regime supporters. In 1994, Faqirzada left Afghanistan and went to the Netherlands where he applied for asylum but in vain and therefore stayed in the country illegally. In 2006, the Dutch authorities arrested him on the basis of the principle of universal jurisdiction. Between 4 and 15 June 2007, the District Court of The Hague tried him for committing international crimes (war crimes and crimes against humanity). He was acquitted in 2007 because there was insufficient evidence to prove that he was responsible for crimes committed by the security police force. The Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court also affirmed Faqirzada’s acquittal.
17 March 2015: In order to fight home terrorism and enhance border controls for EU citizens entering and leaving the EU, the EU interior ministers decided on measures to put in place controls of passports as well as personal checks as of this summer. France is also pushing for “systematic and coordinate” controls. Another tool on the discussion table is the controversial PNR – collection and sharing of private information of air passengers where the EU is moving towards a decision this year.
17 March 2015: According to Hong Lei, China's Foreign Ministry Spokesperson, China is continuing to review draft counter-terrorism law despite recent reports that China had suspended such talks. As Hong stated, the law will be "made in light of China's need to combat terrorism by incorporating new problems emerging from the international fight against terrorism with China's anti-terrorism realities."
17 March 2015: Spain rejected a request by an Argentinian judge to arrest and extradite 20 former Spanish officials, including two ex-government ministers, accused of human rights violations in the era of the dictator Francisco Franco. The request was issued in November, while the judge was investigating allegations of torture and other crimes committed in Spain during that era. To support its decision, Spain cited the expiration of the statute of limitations and also said that it relied on the principal of preferential jurisdiction, according to which a state may refuse to extradite if it is able to prosecute itself.
NEW ON ICD: The case of G. is now available online. The accused, Mr. G., was a citizen of Vanuatu Islands, while he previously resided in India. An arrest warrant was issued against him by the First Special Court in Alipore, Kolkata (India) on allegations of stealing 108,400,000 Indian Rupees (approximately € 2,143,000) from the Allahabad Bank in 1994 and 1995. G. was arrested at Munich Airport on 15 December 2002. On 30 April 2003, the Munich Higher Regional Court approved the extradition of G. to India because there was no risk that he would not be treated in accordance with international standards, more specifically, that he would not be subjected to torture or ill-treatment. In addition, the Court held that the expected punishment of life imprisonment was not ‘absolutely unreasonable’ having in mind the amount of money stolen by Mr. G. The Federal Constitutional Court upheld the decision to extradite G. to India, in particular because there was no evidence suggesting that he would be subjected to torture.
16 March 2015: Pakistan authorities reordered the detention of Zakiur-Rehman Lakhvi, the main suspect in the 2008 terrorist attacks in Mumbai which killed 166 people, a day after a court in Pakistan ordered his release. The initial decision to cancel Lakhvi's detention order attracted criticism from India which persistently urged Pakistan to prosecute Lakhvi. Lakhvi has been in custody since 2009.
16 March 2015: The Criminal Court of Maldives sentenced Mohamed Nasheed, the former President of Maldives, to 13 years imprisonment for terrorism-related charges. The Prosecution stated that the evidence proved beyond reasonable doubt that, three years ago, the former President ordered the arrest and detainment of a top judge.
16 March 2015: The ICC on Friday withdrew charges against Uhuru Kenyatta, the Kenyan president formerly charged with crimes against humanity for inciting post-election violence in 2007 and 2008 during which more than 1,000 people died and more than 600,000 were displaced. However, the court held it could still bring charges against Kenyatta in the future if enough evidence is collected. The prosecutors believe that the reason the case failed is because of political interference after Kenyatta's presidential election in 2013.