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Judgment, 14 Feb 2013, District Court of Oslo, Norway
Judgment , 11 Jun 2010, Porvoo District Court (now District Court of Itä-Uusimaa), Finland
Summary of Situation and Cases, 20 May 2013, Constitutional Court of Guatemala, Tribunal Primero A, Guatemala
General Efraín Ríos Montt was a former head of state of Guatemala.
In 2007, Montt was elected for a seat in the Congress. In 2012, his term of office as a member of the Congress came to an end. As a result, his immunity (heads of states are given protection from being suit without their consent) was lifted. Complaints were brought against Ríos Montt for crimes that resulted in the deaths of 1,771 indigenous Ixil people during his 17-month rule.
On 10 May 2013, Ríos Montt was found guilty of crimes committed against the indigenous Mayan population between 1960 and 1996 and was sentenced to 50 years in prison. On 20 May 2013, Guatemala’s Constitutional Court annulled the decision and set back the trial to the proceedings of 19 April 2013.
Ríos Montt is the first former head of state to be convicted of genocide by a court in his own country.
Arrêt, 4 Apr 1997, Cour d'Appel de Kigali / Court of Appeal of Kigali, Rwanda
Judgment, 16 Jun 1999, Tribunal of First Instance of Kibungo (Sake) (Special Chamber), Rwanda
François Twahirwa was a government official in Rukumberi. During the genocide in Rwanda in 1994, Twahirwa had engaged in organising, inciting and supervising the genocide. He had led meetings where the murder of Tutsi was the objective, he had given instructions to others to kill Tutsi and supervised the operations. Twahirwa was an advisor to the Minister of Public Service and member of the MRND political party and as such, was aware of the fact that Tutsi were being pursued and exterminated throughout the country.
He was charged with genocide, crimes against humanity, being a member, organiser and leader of a criminal organisation, premeditated murder, damage to property, committing an attack with the objective of devastation, pillage or slaughter and non-assistance to persons in danger.
The Court concluded that Twahirwa was “an organizer, inciter, supervisor and one who enlisted others”, and found evidence that he directed others to commit genocide and that he possessed the specific intent necessary for the crime of genocide. The Court convicted Twahirwa of genocide, criminal association and attacks with the objective of devastation, pillage or slaughter. He was acquitted from the other charges due to lack of evidence, but this did not help him: he was sentenced to death.
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