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12 November 2021: Prosecutors in Sweden charged the chair and the chief executive office of Swedish oil and gas producer Lundin Energy with complicity in war crimes committed by the then Sudanese regime of Omar al-Bashir. According to the prosecutors, the company had asked the former Sudanese government to capture and secure a potential oil field although they were aware that doing so would require using force. 

10 November 2021: Alaa Mousa, a Syrian doctor was indicted on charges of crimes against humanity involving the murder of one detainee and the torture of at least 18 others in a military facility in Syria. He was arrested last year, having arrived in Germany in 2015.

8 November 2021: Nicolas Kouijman, the head of the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar, said that preliminary evidence of more than 1.5 million items indicates that the country's military has engaged in a widespread and systematic attack on civilians “amounting to crimes against humanity” since it seized power on 1 February 2021.

5 November 2021: Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian Territory Michael Lynk and the Special Rapporteur on adequate housing Balakrishnan Rajagopal released a statement classifying Israeli settlements as a presumptive war crime under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Moreover, they called upon the international community to support the current investigation into the Israeli settlements by the Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court.

3 November 2021: The U.N.'s Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and the state-appointed Ethiopian Human Rights Commission released a report following an investigation into the war in Ethiopia's northern region of Tigray which states that all sides fighting in the war committed abuses that may amount to war crimes.

2 November 2021: Seven senior officials from a US military jury condemned the torture of Majid Khan, a Guantanamo Bay detainee who was the first to publicly describe in detail the violence and cruelty with which US agents had tortured suspected terrorists in the C.I.A.’s so-called black sites. Khan had earlier pleaded guilty to terrorism charges and was issued a 26 years prison sentence following his statement.

1 November 2021: The Prosecutor of the ICC concluded a Cooperation Agreement with the Government of Colombia that renews the commitment of the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) to Colombia's national accountability processes and brings an end to the OTP's preliminary examination in Colombia. After opening the preliminary investigation in June 2004, the OTP, in 2012, had determined that the Colombian government forces, the FARC- EP-ELN, and the paramilitary groups had all committed war crimes and crimes against humanity.

27 October 2021: Anaïs Marin, the Special Rapporteur on the human rights situation in Belarus, presented a report to the UN General Assembly outlining how female political activists are subjected to enforced disappearances, torture, ill-treatment and exile in Belarus. 

26 October 2021: Six people suspected of involvement in crimes against humanity during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War were arrested and handed over to the International Crimes Tribunal (Bangladesh) following the issuance of an arrest warrant against the six on 21 October 2021 by the tribunal.

25 October 2021: Jennifer Wenisch, a former member of the Islamic State (IS) group, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for being found guilty of aiding and abetting crimes against humanity through enslavement, attempted murder and aiding and abetting the war crime of attempted murder by omission, and membership in a foreign terrorist organisation. The case represents one of the first trials in the world to hold war criminals to prosecute international crimes against the Yazidis.

21 October 2021: A congressional inquiry in Brazil found that President Jair Bolsonaro should be charged with crimes against humanity for his “macabre” reaction to a Covid outbreak that has killed more than 600,000 Brazilians, including a disproportionate number of indigenous citizens. 

20 October 2021: Guernica 37, a group of human rights lawyers, will file a legal complaint to the UK police accusing 20 political and military leaders in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates of being involved in crimes against humanity in Yemen. The dossier also calls for the immediate arrest of these individuals, including Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman and his Emirati equivalent Mohammed bin Zayed, should they enter the UK.

19 October 2021: A 96-year old German woman, who was caught shortly after an attempt to abscond from a court hearing last month on charges of committing war crimes during World War Two, appeared before a court in Itzehoe in northern Germany. She is accused of being an accessory to murder in more than 11,000 cases when she was a stenographer and typist in the commandant's office at the Stutthof camp in Nazi-occupied Poland.

13 October 2021: Five biracial women, all born between 1945 and 1950 in the Democratic Republic of Congo when the country was a Belgian colony, sued the Belgian state for crimes against humanity for its role in separating them from their black mothers and African roots. They are hoping that Belgium will finally recognise its responsibility in the suffering endured by the thousands of mixed-race children who were snatched away from families and placed in religious institutions and homes by Belgian authorities during its colonial era.

12 October 2021: The NGO Allrise filed a compaint at the International Criminal Court (ICC), urging the ICC Prosecutor to investigate Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro for his alleged attacks on the Amazon rainforest, its dependents and defenders, which they say amount to crimes against humanity

11 October 2021: The Pre-Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court (ICC) has asked the UN Secretary-General and the Bureau of the Assembly of States Parties of the Court to submit information on the identification of the authorities currently representing Afghanistan. Earlier last week, ICC Prosecutor Karim Khan had filed an application for an expedited order seeking authorisation to resume the Office of the Prosecutor's investigation in Afghanistan.

8 October 2021: The UN Human Rights Council has voted to shut down the Group of Eminent Experts on Yemen, a body of independent experts mandated to investigate possible war crimes and other human rights violations in Yemen. It marks the first time in the council's 15-year history that a resolution was defeated.

7 October 2021: The trial of Josef S, a 100-year-old former Nazi concentration camp guard, began at the Neuruppin state court. He is charged with 3,518 counts of accessory to murder while working in Sachsenhausen between 1942 and 1945 as an enlisted member of the Nazi party’s paramilitary wing.

5 October 2021: A former Serb paramilitary, identified only by his initials G.S., was sentenced to twenty years in prison by a court in Kosovo for committing war crimes involving the execution of 12 Kosovar Albanian men in three separate cases. These crimes were committed within the context of the Serb army, police and paramilitary forces' attacks on the villages of Sllovi and Terbovc of the Lipjan commune in April 1999.

4 October 2021: The Independent Fact-Finding Mission on Libya, a Human Rights Council-appointed probe, reported that war crimes and crimes against humanity have likely been committed in Libya by all parties to the conflict since 2016 including by external actors. The Mission was established in June 2020 with a mandate to investigate alleged violations and abuses of international human rights law and international humanitarian law committed in Libya since 2016. 

30 September 2021: Trial Chamber III of the ICC has set a date for the opening of the trial in the case of The Prosecutor v. Paul Gicheru for 15 February 2022. Gicheru is accused of offences against the administration of justice consisting of corruptly influencing witnesses of the Court in Kenya.

29 September 2021: ICC Prosecutor Karim Khan has filed an application for an expedited order seeking authorisation to resume the Office of the Prosecutor's investigation in Afghanistan, with a focus on crimes allegedly committed by the Taliban and the Islamic State – Khorasan Province. Previously, the Prosecutor had deferred the investigation to Afghan national authorities following a request by the former Afghan government in accordance with Article 18(2) of the Rome Statute. 

25 September 2021: Theoneste Bagosora, a former Rwandan army colonel, widely regarded as one of the masterminds behind the Rwandan genocide, has died. Bagora was serving a 35-year sentence in prison in Mali after being found guilty of crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in 2008.

24 September 2021: Chance Muhonya, a former militiaman in the DRC, was sentenced to life imprisonment for crimes against humanity, war crimes and environmental crimes by a mobile court in Kahuzi Biega National Park (South Kivu), Congo. In 2019, Muhonya and his accomplices had taken control of part of the Kahuzi Biega National Park, where they illegally exploited its natural resources, enrolled child soldiers and tortured, raped and killed local villagers.

23 September 2021: Thomas Andrews, the UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, presented a report to the UN Human Rights Council in which he accused the country's military junta of carrying out systematic attacks against civilians that may amount to crimes against humanity. He further said that more than 1,100 people have been killed, at least 8,000 arbitrarily arrested and more than 230,000 forcibly displaced since the current regime seized control on 1 February.

22 September 2021: Hundreds of people protested outside Namibia's parliament, as the National Assembly was due to vote on an agreement, in which Germany acknowledged that it had committed genocide in colonial-era Namibia and promised $1.3 billion in financial support to descendants of the victims. 

20 September 2021: The UN Commission of Inquiry on Burundi has reported that crimes including arbitrary detention and execution, torture and intimidation have not stopped in spite of a pledge by President Evariste Ndayishimiye to address the country's dire human rights record. The Commission was established by the Human Rights Council in 2016 to conduct investigations into human rights violations and abuses in Burundi since April 2015, including on their extent and whether they may constitute international crimes.

17 September 2021: The trial of Salih Mustafa, a former Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) commander indicted on charges of war crimes, opened on Wednesday, marking the first trial heard at the Kosovo Specialist Chambers. In their opening statement, The Prosecutors argued that there is irrefutable evidence that Mustafa is guilty of the torture of at least six people and the murder of another.

16 September 2021: The Human Rights Watch have reported that Eritrean soldiers and Tigrayan fighters committed "clear war crimes" by raping, detaining and killing Eritrean refugees in the conflict-stricken northern region of Tigray in Ethiopia. Fighting between Ethiopia's federal troops and forces loyal to the Tigray's Liberation Front (TPLF), which controls the region, broke out in November 2020 and has created a severe humanitarian crisis leaving 400,000 people facing famine-like conditions, according to the United Nations.

15 September 2021: The International Criminal Court (ICC) Pre-Trial Chamber 1 granted the ICC Prosecutor the request to investigate crimes against humanity allegedly committed on the territory of the Philippines between 1 November 2011 and 16 March 2019 in the context of the so-called 'war on drugs' campaign.

14 September 2021: The Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar (IIMM) presented its third annual report to the UN Human Rights Council, where it warned that serious crimes and violations of international law, including crimes against humanity, continue to be committed in Myanmar. The Mechanism was created by the UNHRC to collect, consolidate, preserve and analyse evidence of the most serious international crimes and violations of international law committed in Myanmar since 2011 and to prepare files focusing on the criminal conduct of persons responsible.

13 September 2021: Edin Vranj, a former senior Police Administration official in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, was arrested while crossing the border between Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and charged with having committed war crimes against prisoners of war during the Bosnian conflict in the early 1990s. In recent years, two other Bosnians, namely Husein Mujanovic and Osman Osmanovic, had been arrested at a border crossing with Serbia over accusations of war crimes.

10 September 2021: United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres appointed Christian Ritscher of Germany as the Special Adviser and Head of the United Nations Investigative Team to Promote Accountability for Crimes Committed by Da’esh/Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (UNITAD). The organization was established to support domestic efforts to hold the terrorist group ISIL accountable for war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide committed in Iraq. 

8 September 2021: Two women, arriving from territories once controlled by the Islamic State to Stockholm airport, were arrested by Swedish authorities for allegedly committing war crimes in Syria. Prosecutors Hanna Lemoine and Karolina Wieslander, who are in charge of the two cases, informed the Swedish news agency TT that the two women arrested will be questioned further before the prosecution decides whether to formally charge them.

7 September 2021: The Court of Cassation of France, the country's highest court of appeal, overturned a previous ruling by a lower court that had dismissed charges for complicity in crimes against humanity against cement giant Lafarge over its role in the Syrian Civil War. This ruling does not imply that the company will automatically face trial; rather the Court referred the matter back to investigating magistrates, who will now reconsider the complicity charge.

6 September 2021: The ECCHR - European Center for Constitutional and Human Rights, a Berlin-based NGO, accused several German companies, including high profile brands like Hugo Boss and C&A, of being allegedly complicit in crimes against humanity by "profiting" from the forced labour of Uyghur Muslims in China. Commenting on the complaint, Miriam Saage-Maass, the director of the organization, said, "These five cases are just one example of a much larger and more systemic problem,"

3 September 2021: Experts serving on the UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture (SPT) called on the new Taliban-led authorities of Afghanistan to uphold the country's international obligations, particularly, by complying with all provisions of the Convention against Torture and of its Optional Protocol.

1 September 2021: Mwatana Organization for Human Rights and Global Rights Compliance released a report documenting how starvation was used as a tactic of war by both the Saudi-led coalition and the Houthi rebels in the ongoing Yemeni civil war. The rights groups also urged the U.N. Security Council to refer the opposing participants to the International Criminal Court to investigate the acts which may amount to war crimes.

31 August 2021: Two high-ranking ex-generals from Guatemala will stand trial for committing genocide, crimes against humanity and forced kidnappings in relation to the massacres of mostly Indigenous people during the country's brutal civil war four decades ago. The case concerns over 1,700 victims who were killed over 31 separate massacres in the country’s northern Quiche region.

30 August 2021: Victims of the war in Yemen have called on the ICC Prosecutor to open an investigation into war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the ongoing six-year conflict, which has been described by the UN as the world's worst humanitarian crisis. Their application included well-documented evidence of three events involving the torture and murder of civilians and missile attacks.

27 August 2021: Goran Viskovic, a former Bosnian Serb Army military policeman, went on trial for crimes against humanity involving the persecution, murder and illegal detentions of civilians in Vlasenica and Milici between 1992 and 1993. In 2011, the Bosnian state court sentenced him to 18 years in prison which he is currently serving at the Susica detention facility.

26 August 2021: Several civil society organisations and individuals, including Human Rights Watch, REDRESS and Amnesty International, urged Sudan's Transitional Government to swiftly facilitate the handover of Omar al-Bashir, Ahmed Haroun, and Abdel Raheem Muhammed Hussein to the International Criminal Court (ICC)

24 August 2021: Hissene Habre, the former president of Chad and war criminal, has died at the age of 79 after contracting the COVID-19 virus. In 2016, he was sentenced to life in prison for war crimes involving rape and ordering the killing and torture of thousands of political opponents during his eight-year rule in the 1980s.

23 August 2021: A report commissioned by the Organization of American States (OAS) claimed that Bolivia’s recent interim government came to power by persecuting opponents with systematic torture and summary executions by security forces. At least 20 people were killed in two incidents that the experts characterized as massacres.

20 August 2021: An investigation conducted by Amnesty International has revealed that Taliban fighters killed nine Hazara men after taking control of the Ghazni province in Afghanistan last month. Several eyewitnesses and photographic evidence suggests that the victims were tortured before being executed, entailing that these acts may constitute violations of the Geneva Conventions and war crimes under the Rome Statute.  

19 August 2021: The defence team of Khieu Samphan, the former head of state for Cambodia’s brutal Khmer Rouge regime, appealed to overturn his genocide conviction by calling into question the evidence that was presented at his original trial before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC). In 2018, the ECCC had found Khieu Samphan guilty of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in relation to the Khmer Rouge regime’s atrocities in Cambodia in the 1970s.

17 August 2021: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) called on all parties to the ongoing conflict in Afghanistan to respect their obligations under international humanitarian law while noting that his office may exercise jurisdiction over any genocide, crimes against humanity or war crimes in Afghanistan since the country joined the court in 2003.

16 August 2021: Rade Garic, a former Bosnia Serb police officer and soldier, was convicted of war crimes and sentenced to 20 years in prison by the Court of Bosnia-Herzegovina. The crimes Garic is accused of involve atrocities committed against Bosniak Muslims in the eastern town of Vlasenica in 1992 and later in Srebrenica in 1995.

13 August 2021: Human Rights Watch reported that rocket and mortar attacks fired by Palestinian armed groups during its fighting with Israeli forces in May 2021 amount to war crimes. Some of the attacks were directed towards populated areas in Israel resulting in the deaths of 12 civilians and injuries to dozens of others.

12 August 2021: A new report by Amnesty International revealed that forces aligned with the Ethiopian government subjected hundreds of women and girls to sexual violence which constitute war crimes, and may amount to crimes against humanity. The organization also called for the Ethiopian authorities to grant access to the African Commission for Human and Peoples’ Rights Commission of Inquiry, and urged the UN Secretary-General to send his Team of Experts on the Rule of Law and Sexual Violence in Conflict to Tigray where the conflict is ongoing.

10 August 2021: Hamid Noury, an Iranian citizen who was charged by Swedish prosecutors last week over a leading role in mass executions and war crimes committed during the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s has gone on trial. It is estimated that around 5,000 political prisoners were allegedly executed across Iran at the end of its bloody conflict with neighbouring Iraq.

9 August 2021: Indigenous groups in Brazil have filed a request with the International Criminal Court, urging it to investigate President Jair Bolsonaro’s alleged crimes against humanity and genocide against Indigenous peoples. Lawyers representing the APIB, the coalition of Indigenous associations which brought forth the claim, argue that Bolsonaro committed these offences by incentivizing deforestation and illegal mining in Indigenous territories which has fueled the destruction of communities and increased violence and deaths.

6 August 2021: A new report by the UN Human Rights Office (OHCHR) and UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) highlighted that the practice of torturing detainees is widespread in jails in Iraq although laws criminalizing torture have been passed. U.N. human rights spokeswoman Marta Hurtado said more than half of those interviewed for the report provided accounts of having been tortured or ill-treated through electrical shocks, beatings and by other means while in custody.

4 August 2021: The Sudanese cabinet has voted to ratify the Rome Statute, the country's first step towards joining the International Criminal Court. While the draft bill still needs to be approved by the sovereign council, a joint military-civilian body that is the country’s highest authority, the development brings the possibility of former longtime President Omar al-Bashir facing trial for genocide closer.

3 August 2021: A 100-year-old former Nazi concentration camp guard is set to stand trial in Germany in October, having been accused of war crimes involving complicity in 3,518 murders of prisoners at the Sachsenhausen camp near Berlin between 1942 and 1945. German media has reported that the trial is expected to be one of the last concerning crimes committed during the Nazi era given the advanced age of both the survivors and perpetrators.

2 August 2021: The United States and the United Kingdom embassies in Kabul accused the Taliban of war crimes by carrying out revenge murders of dozens of civilians in the southern town of Spin Boldak in Kandahar province, Afghanistan. Clashes between Afghan and Taliban forces have recently surged as US and NATO troops plan to complete their final withdrawal by August 31 2021.

29 July 2021: Alla Mousa, a Syrian doctor, has been charged with crimes against humanity by Germany for allegedly killing one person and torturing several others in military hospitals in the Syrian cities of Homs and Damascus. Mr Mousa had arrived in Germany in 2015 to practice medicine before being arrested last year on 18 counts of torture. 

28 July 2021: Prosecutors in Sweden charged an Iranian man with war crimes for his involvement in mass executions of "a large number" of prisoners who sympathised with the leftist opposition group Mujahedin-e Khalq (MEK) in 1988. The MEK was allied with the Iraqi army and fought alongside them during the war with Iran, between 1980 and 1988. The accused, who has not been named, is also suspected of subjecting the prisoners to torture and inhumane treatment.

27 July 2021: Human Rights Watch has reported that apparent war crimes were committed by Israeli forces and Palestinian armed groups during the May 2021 fighting in the Gaza Strip and Israel. The NGO conducted an investigation that included the three Israeli strikes that led to the death of 62 Palestinian civilians alongside the launching of more than 4360 unguided rockets and mortars toward Israeli population centres by the Palestinian armed groups. Gerry Simpson, associate crisis and conflict director of the organization, underscored the "consistent unwillingness of the Israeli authorities to seriously investigate alleged war crimes" and therefore highlighted the "importance of the International Criminal Court's inquiry." 

26 July 2021: Valentin Inzko, the outgoing head of Bosnia’s Office of the High Representative (OHR), introduced new changes to the country's criminal code, which outlaws the denial of genocide and the glorification of war criminals. Anyone convicted of these crimes may face up to five years in prison. 

23 July 2021: Navi Pillay, former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, has been chosen to lead the UN Human Rights Council's open-ended commission of inquiry into alleged war crimes and other violations of international human rights and international humanitarian law committed in Israel and the occupied Palestinian territories during the 11 day conflict between Israel and the Islamist group Hamas in Gaza. She will be joined by Miloon Kothari of India, the first UN special rapporteur on adequate housing, and Australian international human rights law expert Chris Sidoti to make up the three-person investigative team. 

21 July 2021: The Supreme Court of the Philippines has ruled that the country is obliged to cooperate with the International Criminal Court (ICC) in criminal proceedings, directly contradicting President Rodrigo Duterte's assertion that the ICC has no jurisdiction. This judgment comes amidst recent developments in the Court, involving the ICC Prosecutor requesting judicial authorisation to investigate alleged crimes committed since at least 1 July 2016, in the context of the "war on drugs".

20 July 2021: Turkey announced that it had uncovered a mass grave containing 61 bodies in a Turkish-held region of northern Syria and accused the YPG Kurdish group of the killings, which amount to a crime against humanity. The YPG, a force backed by Western militaries in the fight against ISIL, has not yet commented on the allegations. 

19 July 2021: Pre-trial Chamber A of the International Criminal Court confirmed the charges of offences against the administration of justice against Paul Gicheru and committed him to trial. Mr Gicheru, along with other members of a common plan, had attempted to undermine the Prosecution's case in the Ruto and Sang case by allegedly offering witnesses financial and/or benefits and threatening them in order to cease cooperating with the Prosecution and the Court.

 

16 July 2021: Ahmed al-Khidr, a 49-year-old Syrian asylum seeker and former member of al-Qaeda-affiliated Jabhat al-Nusra Front, has been sentenced to 20 years in prison by a court in the Netherlands for committing a war crime that involved shooting a captured Syrian army soldier in 2012. This case marks the first time a Dutch court has dealt with allegations of war crimes committed in Syria.

15 July 2021: The United States Senate has passed a bill banning all products imported from China's Xinjiang region, the latest move from Washington to pressure Beijing over allegations of forced labour and massive human rights abuses against minorities in the region that amount to crimes against humanity. The legislation creates an assumption that goods manufactured in Xinjiang are made with forced labour unless proven otherwise.

14 July 2021: A video depicting Taliban forces killing 22 surrendering Afghan soldiers in Northern Afghanistan was verified and made public by CNN. Responding to the video, both the Afghan Ministry of Defence spokesperson Fawad Aman and Amnesty International labeled the incident a war crime.

13 July 2021The United States State Department released a seven-page congressional report under the Elie Wiesel Genocide and Atrocities Prevention Act, highlighting six countries, namely Myanmar, Ethiopia, Iraq, Syria, South Sudan and China, that are witnessing or are at risk of atrocities and crimes against humanity. Addressing the report, Secretary of State Antony Blinken stated "We'll use all of the tools that are at our disposal, including diplomacy, foreign assistance, investigations in fact-finding missions, financial tools and engagements, and reports like this one, which raises awareness and allows us to generate coordinated international pressure and response."

12 July 2021: Michael Lynk, the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Palestinian territories, asserted that Israeli settlements in east Jerusalem and the occupied West Bank amounts to a war crime in an address to the UN Human Rights Council. He further urged other countries to "inflict a cost" on Israel for the alleged "300 settlements, with more than 680,000 Israeli settlers" that he estimated in a report to the Council. 

9 July 2021: The International Criminal Court (ICC) Pre-Trial Chamber II confirmed the charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity brought by the ICC Prosecutor against Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman ("Ali Kushayb") and committed him to trial before a Trial Chamber. On 9 June 2020, Ali Kushayb had voluntarily surrendered himself in the Central African Republic on account of an ICC arrest warrant issued on 27 April 2007 and had been in the custody of the ICC since then.

8 July 2021: Kosovo's parliament adopted a resolution condemning the 1995 massacre of about 8000 Bosnian men and boys in Srebrenica by Bosnian Serb troops, branded as a genocide by the International Court of Justice in the Bosnian Genocide case. The resolution, initiated by the Vakat coalition of parties representing the Bosnian minority in Kosovo, was approved by 89 lawmakers in the 120-seat parliament while none voted against it. 

7 July 2021: The Special Jurisdiction for Peace (SJP) tribunal in Colombia has charged top military leaders with crimes against humanity, accusing them of murdering at least 120 civilians and presenting those victims as combat casualties to show that the country was winning its long civil war. This is the first time that the SJP has held anyone accountable for being involved in the so-called "false positive" scandal since its establishment in 2016 as part of the peace agreement between the country’s government and its largest rebel group.

6 July 2021: A report from the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights accused Venezuelan security forces of a continued pattern of torture or cruel treatment of individuals alongside enforced disappearances and incommunicado detentions. In response, the Venezuelan foreign ministry dismissed the report as a "lie constructed to artifically feed a case before the International Criminal Court, with the political objective of destabilizing the country's democratic institutions".

5 July 2021: Prosecutors in France have opened an investigation into four fashion retailers, namely Zara, Uniqlo, Skechers and SMCP, suspected of benefitting from and concealing crimes against humanity by using forced labor in China's Xinjiang region. United Nations experts and human rights groups estimate that over a million people, mainly Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities, have been detained in mass internment camps in recent years by Chinese authorities although China has denied all the accusations.

2 July 2021: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court (ICC) ruled to confirm the decision of the Trial Chamber X of 17 December 2020 titled, 'Decision on application for notice of possibility of legal characterisation puruant to Regulation 55(2) of the Regulations of the Court' in the Prosecutor v. Al Hassan Ag Abdoul Aziz case. Al Hassan has been charged with alleged crimes against humanity committed in Timbuktu, Mali, in the context of a wide and systematic attack by armed groups Ansar Eddine/Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, between 1 April 2021 and 28 January 2013.

1 July 2021: An independent advisory panel in the Netherlands has called on the government to acknowledge and formally apologize for the role played by the Netherlands in the transatlantic slave trade during the 17th to 19th century that amounted to crimes against humanity.

30 June 2021: The U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals delivered its judgement in the case of Prosecutor v. Jovica Stanišić and Franko Simatović. The Trial Chamber found Mr. Stanišić and Mr. Simatović responsible for aiding and abetting the crime of murder as a crime against humanity, and the crimes of deportation, forcible transfer, and persecution, also as crimes against humanity. They have both been sentenced them to 12 years of imprisonment each.

29 June 2021: The Hague District Court convicted a woman for contributing to war crimes committed by the Islamic State (IS) extremist group in Syria and Iraq. She was sentenced to six years in prison for distributing large amounts of IS propaganda including incitement to commit terrorist activities and sharing videos of prisoners of war being killed via the Telegram messaging app in 2019.

28 June 2021: Sudan has announced that it will surrender former officials who are wanted for alleged war crimes in the Darfur region to the International Criminal Court. These include former president Omar al-Bashir, former Defence Minister Abdelraheem Muhammad Hussein and former Minister of the Interior Ahmad Harun. Sudan's decision comes weeks after the Court's outgoing chief prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda, visited the country and urged its leaders to surrender all those wanted.

25 June 2021: The Liberia National Bar Association (LNBA) in collaboration with a group of civil society organizations tabled a draft bill in the Liberian Parliament which calls for the establishment of a tribunal to try war crimes committed during the first and second Liberian civil wars between 1989 and 2003.

24 June 2021: Following the announcement of Ebrahim Raisi's appointment as Iran's next president, Amnesty International's Secretary General, Agnès Callamard has expressed concern over his rise to the presidency, instead of being investigated for the crimes against humanity of murder, enforced disappearance and torture. In 2018, Amnesty International had documented Ebrahim Raisi's alleged role as a member of the ‘death commission’ which forcibly disappeared and extrajudicially executed thousands of political dissidents in Evin and Gohardasht prisons near Tehran in 1988.

23 June 2021: An international panel of legal experts has unveiled a new legal definition for ecocide intended to be introduced as an amendment to the ICC Statute. If adopted by the Assembly of State Parties, it will become the fifth international crime - alongside war crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity and the crime of aggression - under the Court's jurisdiction.

22 June 2021: Montenegro's parliament has adopted a resolution condemning the Srebenica genocide, banning its denial and introduced a commemoration day for the incident. It also dismissed Justice Minister Vladimir Leposavic, who had recently denied the 1995 killing of some 8,000 Bosniak Muslims in Srebrenica by Bosnian Serb in the Bosnian War.

21 June 2021: The Swiss Federal Criminal Court convicted Alieu Kosiah, a former commander of the United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy armed group, for war crimes committed during the first Liberian civil war, from 1989 to 1996. He received the maximum 20-year sentence in what was Switzerland's first war crimes trial in a civilian court. 

18 June 2021: The Higher Regional Court of Düsseldorf, Germany convicted 'Sarah O', a German ISIS member for crimes against humanity against Yazidi's. She was held guilty of membership in a foreign terrorist organisation, assault, deprivation of liberty, aiding and abetting rape, enslavement and religious and gender-based persecution as crimes against humanity.

17 June 2021: The Netherlands Compensation Commission Potocari opened the doors of its Sarajevo office to potential compensation claims from relatives of people who were killed in the Srebenica genocide after being taken from Dutch UN peacekeeping troops’ base in Potocari in July 1995. 

16 June 2021: Mr. Karim Khan was sworn in today in The Hague as the new Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court for a term of nine years. He took over from Fatou Bensouda of Gambia, whose nine-year term ended yesterday.

15 June 2021: Amnesty International has published a report titled ‘Like We Were Enemies in a War’: China’s Mass Internment, Torture, and Persecution of Muslims in Xinjiang, which states that state-organized mass imprisonment, torture and persecution in Xinjiang may amount to crimes against humanity

14 June 2021: Outgoing International Criminal Court Chief Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda announced the conclusion of the preliminary examination in the situation in the Philippines and requested judicial authorisation to proceed with an investigation. She stated that on the basis of analysis of a large amount of information, her Office believes that the crime against humanity of murder has been committed between 1 July 2016 and 16 March 2019 in the context of the Government of Philippines 'war on drugs' campaign.

11 June 2021: The new Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Mr. Karim Khan QC will be sworn in at the Court in The Hague on Wednesday 16 June, 2021. Following the swearing in ceremony, he will officially assume the post of the ICC Prosecutor.

10 June 2021: Outgoing International Criminal Court Chief Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda gave her final briefing to the United Nations Security Council on the Situation in Darfur. She urged Sudanese authorities to remain committed to justice in Darfur and called upon them to transfer to ICC, suspects wanted for war crimes and crimes against humanity, currently in the custody of the Government of Sudan.

9 June 2021: The United Nations Security Council expressed deep concern about the recent increase in violence and instability in the Central African Republic. It condemned all attacks against civilians, intercommunal violence, targeted violence against women and children, lootings of humanitarian premises and attacks against United Nations peacekeepers, emphasing that some of these attacks may constitute war crimes

8 June 2021: The U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals appeals judges have upheld the conviction of former Bosnian Serb military chief Ratko Mladic for genocide during Bosnia’s 1992-95 war and confirmed his life sentence.

7 June 2021: Lawyers from across Canada have formally requested the International Criminal Court to investigate the Canadian government and the Vatican for crimes against humanity following the discovery of the remains of estimated 215 children in the former Kamloops Indian Residential School. 

4 June 2021: Uighur Tribunal, a London based people's tribunal is investigating whether China's alleged persecution of the Uighur minority amounts to genocide. First session of hearings took place today and are scheduled to continue until 7 June. The first day saw witness testimony by a teacher of the 're-education' camps. 

3 June 2021: Laurent Gbagbo, former Ivory Coast President is scheduled to return to Ivory Court on June 17 following is final acquittal on charges of crimes against humanity at the International Criminal Court. Laurent Gbagbo and his aide Charles Ble Goude were tried for crimes committed during the post-electoral violence that rocked the West African nation in 2010 and 2011.

2 June 2021: Chad's Defence Minister has said that troops from neighbouring Central African Republic had attacked a Chadian military post, killing one soldier, and kidnapping and executing five others, amounting to commission of a war crime. The Ministry announced that heavily armed assailants struck in the early hours of Sunday, 30 May, attacking a post defended by 12 Chadian soldiers near Chad's 1,000-km shared frontier with CAR.

1 June 2021: More than 50 former foreign ministers, prime ministers and senior international officials have signed an open letter condemning political interference in efforts by the International Criminal Court to investigate alleged war crimes in Palestine. The Courts probe will cover allegations of war crimes and other international crimes in the region of West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza Strip since June 2014. 

31 May 2021: Germany has agreed to pay Namibia € 1.1 Billion as it officially recognised the Herero-Nama genocide at the start of the 20th century. The government has declared that the sum amounts to a gesture of reconciliation but not legally binding reparations. Last week, it was reported that Germany had has ruled out financial reparations for the Namibia genocide amid fears that such payments could set a legal precedent for further claims.

28 May 2021: The UN Human Rights Council will launch an investigation into 'systematic discrimination and repression' in Israel and Palestine with the objective of identifying the root cause of the recent attacks in Gaza. The proposal was passed yesterday at a special session called at the request of Pakistan, on behalf of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and Palestine. 

27 May 2021: The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet said that Israel's recent attack on the Gaza strip may constitute war crimes. The comment was made as she opened a special session of the UN Human Rights Council, called at the request of Pakistan, on behalf of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and Palestine. 

26 May 2021: Ukrainian Parliament adopted a bill that could help authorities prosecute war crimes and crimes against humanity domestically. The law includes provisions on command responsibility, the statute of limitations for international crimes, and universal jurisdiction for international crimes. The president will need to sign the law before it enters into effect.

25 May 2021: Germany has ruled out financial reparations for the Namibia genocide amid fears that such payments could set a legal precedent for further claims. The German government has been in negotiation with Namibia since 2014 to 'heal the wounds' of what is described as the first genocide of the 20th century, in which around 75,000 Herero and Namaqua people died. Last week it was declared that the formal apology to the Namibian parliament would include compensation in the form of funding for social projects benefiting the descendants of the survivors.

22 May 2021: The confirmation charges hearing in the case The Prosecutor v. Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman ("Ali Kushayb") opened before Pre-Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court. The hearing is scheduled until 27 May 2021. Ali Kushayb is suspected of 31 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed between August 2003 and at least April 2004 in Darfur, Sudan.

21 May 2021: The UN Human Rights Council has announced that it will hold a special session to address the deteriorating situation across Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories even after the ceasefire has been instated. Amnesty International notes that the session must focus on ensuring accountability for violations and the commission of possible war crimes in Gaza. 

20 May 2021: Isreali officials have announced that Israel and Hamas are expected to reach a ceasefire soon. This development comes after days of fighting involving alleged commission of war crimes. The ceasfire is likely to come in stages and will include cessation of Israeli attacks on Hamas infrasructure and facilities, with Hamas halting firing of rockets at Israeli cities. The conflict has killed at least 227 people in Gaza and 12 in Israel.

19 May 2021: Germany is preparing to pay Namibia reparations for what is described as the first genocide of the 20th century, in which around 75,000 Herero and Namaqua people died. German President, Frank-Walter Steinmeier is expected to deliver a formal apology in the Namibian parliament. Germany is supposed to provide compensation in the form of funding for social projects benefiting the descendants of the survivors.

18 May 2021: Amnesty International has called upon the International Criminal Court to investigate Israeli attacks on residential homes in Gaza as war crimes. The death toll in Gaza continues to climb with at least 198 Palestinians killed and more than 1,220 injured. Ten people in Israel have been killed and at least 27 injured by Palestinian attacks. Last week, Chief Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda of the ICC stated that her office will continue to monitor developments on the ground and will factor any matter that falls within its jurisdiction. 

17 May 2021: The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet has appealed for immediate de-escalation in the Israel-Palestine crisis. She warned of disproportionate use of violence and attacks on non-military objectives as constituting war crimes. Meanwhile, the United Nations Security Council failed to agree on a unified position calling for ceasefire in the crisis. 

14 May 2021: Radovan Karadžić, the former Bosnian Serb leader convicted of genocide over the 1995 massacre in Srebrenica, is to be transferred to a UK prison to serve the rest of his life sentence. In 2016, the U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals convicted him and later increased his sentence from 40 years to life imprisonment following a failed appeal attempt.

12 May 2021: Court from Finland that moved to Sierra Leone for the trial of Gibil Massaquoi for war crimes in Liberia, resumed yesterday with witness hearings. Gibil Massaquoi's case began in Finland, where he lived since 2008, under universal jurisdiction principles and was then shifted to Sierra Leone. 

11 May 2021: The UN Investigative Team to Promote Accountability for Crimes Committed by Da'eash/ISIL (UNITAD) stated before the Security Council that it has established 'clear and convincing evidence' of genocide against Yazidis. Senior Advisor and Head of UNITAD, Karim Khan said that it is now important to support developments towards legislation that will allow for ISIL members to be prosecuted. 

10 May 2021: The United Nations has urged Israel to call off any forced evictions in Israeli-annexed East Jerusalem warning that its actions could amount to war crimes. Protests continue to be curbed through arrest and other means, as Palestinians object to threats of eviction of Palestinian families from the Sheikh Jarrah neighbourhood near Jerusalem's Old City. 

7 May 2021: Following a wave of abductions and torture by security forces in Uganda, lawyers have named senior military commanders including President Yoweri Museveni's son in a complaint to the International Criminal Court. Prosecutors at the Court are already reviewing an earlier submission from the opposition politician Robert Kyagulanyi over widespread human rights abuses before presidential polls held in January.

6 May 2021: Trial Chamber IX of the International Criminal Court has sentenced Dominic Ongwen to 25 years of imprisonment following the judgment which found him guilty for a total of 61 crimes comprising crimes against humanity and war crimes. The period of his detention between 4 January 2015 and 6 May 2021, will be deducted from the total time of imprisonment imposed on him. 

5 May 2021: Ahmed Haroun, a former Sudanese official and key ally of former President Omar al-Bashir has said that he wants to be put on trial at the International Criminal Court rather than in Sudan. He is accused of carrying out war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur, Sudan. 

4 May 2021: The French prosecutor's department has declared that investigations carried out by French authorities could not prove any grounds to pursue legal claims against French troops with respect to their alleged complicity in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Individual reports commissioned by both the Rwandan and French governments concluded that France bears 'overwhelming responsibility' over the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.

3 May 2021: British foreign secretary, Dominic Raab said that Iran's treatment of Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliff amounts to torture. Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliff was first arrested in Iran in 2016 and given a five year sentence that she has now completed. She now awaits a decision on an appeal after she was found guilty of acting to undermine the Iranian state by attending a demonstration outside the Iranian embassy in London in 2009.

30 April 2021: Abu Zubaydah, a Guantanamo Bay inmate who alleges torture by his American captors after the 9/11 attacks in the US, filed a complaint with the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention against the United States and six other countries, asking for intervention in his case. The 50-year-old Saudi-born Palestinian has been in detention for 19 years since he was detained in March 2002 on suspicions of being a senior member of Al-Qaeda who helped plan the 9/11 attacks.

29 April 2021: The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution demanding that all combatants protect schools, hospitals, power grids and other infrastructures critical for civilians services, in light of their destruction in the conflicts in Syria, Afghanistan, South Sudan and Ukraine. It also stresses the importance of the need for accountability for violations 

28 April 2021:
A new report released by Human Rights Watch declares that Israel is committing the crimes of apartheid and persecution against Arabs in the occupied territories and Israel itself. Apartheid amounts to state-sanctioned racial discrimination and is considered a crime against humanity. Israel's foreign ministry has rejected the report as "preposterous and false".

27 April 2021: report on US police brutality prepared by human rights experts, declares that the systematic killing and maiming of unarmed African Americans amount to crimes against humanity which should be investigated and prosecuted under international law. It also calls upon the International Criminal Court to initiate investigations into the same. 

26 April 2021: US President, Joe Biden issued a statement formally describing the 1915 massacre of Armenians as a genocide. The atrocities that took place in the days of the Ottoman Empire, the forerunner to present-day Turkey were widely recorded at the time by witnesses including journalists, missionaries and diplomats. While Turkey has acknowledged atrocities, it has dismissed the term genocide, and strongly rejected US's decision.  

23 April 2021: A report commissioned by the Rwandan government concludes that the French government bears significant responsibility for enabling a foreseeable genocide in 1994. The 600 page report states that France did not do anything to stop the massacre and later tried to cover up its role and offer protection to perpetrators. 

22 April 2021: A court in Germany sentenced a 35-year old woman from Leverkusen to imprisonment for 4 year and 3 months for joining and participating in the Islamic State. The State Security Senate found her guilty in eight cases on numerous charges, including war crimes and aiding and abetting crimes against humanity.

21 April 2021: A court in The Hague, Netherlands has sentenced a 31 year old Syrian to six years in prison for participating in a terrorist organisation and committing a war crime. The man lived in Syria in 2015 and fought with the terrorist organization Ahrar al-Sham in the Battle of a-Ghab, among others. A video of him, mistreating deceased armed personnel was released on YouTube and he was subsequently convicted.

20 April 2021: Human Rights Watch has released a report stating that the Chinese government is committing crimes against humanity against Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims in the northwest region of Xinjiang. The report titled, 'Break Their Lineage, Break Their Roots': China's Crimes against Humanity Targeting Uyghurs and Other Turkic Muslims' draws on newly available information from Chinese government documents, human rights groups, media and scholars in determining the Chinese leaderships responsibility in Xinjiang within the international legal framework.  

19 April 2021: Beatrice Munyenyezi, a Rwandan women who was deported by the United States after serving prison term for lying about her role in the Rwandan genocide, during her naturalisation process, has been arrested by Rwandan authorities. The Rwandan Bureau of Investigation has said that she will be charged with crimes ranging from murder to complicity in rape.

16 April 2021: The House of Commons in the UK is scheduled next week to vote to declare that a genocide is under way in Xinjiang, China. This step is likely to damage Sino-British relations which are already strained since China imposed sanctions on British MPs critical of its human rights record. The UK Foreign Office has also been supportive of the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights being allowed by China to go to Xinjiang to conduct an unfettered inquiry. 

15 April 2021: Amnesty International reports that Eritrean troops killed three people and injured at least 19 others in an unprovoked attack on civilians in the town of  Adwa In Tigray on 12 April. It has called for international investigation into this incident and multiple other attacks on civilians, for allegations of war crimes, possible crimes against humanity and other human rights abuses in the ongoing conflict in Tigray, Ethiopia.

14 April 2021: The  United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet has said that the Overseas Operations Bill under consideration by the UK Parliament would limit war crimes accountability if passed in its current form. She urged the Parliament to heed warnings about the risks that the Bill poses in shielding military personnel operating abroad from due accountability for torture or other international crimes. 

13 April 2021: The closing arguments in the case of Prosecutor v. Jovica Stanišić and Franko Simatović before the U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals are ongoing. The Prosecutors stated before the Court that the accused helped train and equip ethnic Serbs to conduct brutal ethnic cleansing campaigns against non-Serbs in the 1990's Yugoslav conflict. Both the accused have pleaded not guilty to crimes including murder and persecution as crimes against humanity.

12 April 2021: In a letter to the International Criminal Court, Israel has said that it will not co-operate with the Court in its investigation into war crimes in the Israel occupied territories. The letter states that the Court is acting without authority in carrying out its probe. The investigation is supposed probe alleged war crimes committed by both Israelis and Palestinians in the West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem since 13 June 2014.

9 April 2021: Protais Mpiranya, the former commander of the presidential guard for the Rwandan army is believed to be hiding in Zimbabwe. The former soldier, who has been on the run for 27 years has been indicted by the U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals on charges of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide.

8 April 2021: United Nations Secretary-General, António Guterres commemorated the International Day of Reflection on the 1994 Genocide Against the Tutsi in Rwanda by highlighting Rwanda's display of the power of justice and reconciliation while warning about the increasing use of technology and techniques used by extremists worldwide.

7 April 2021: Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda visited Mali and addressed the issue of destruction of cultural heritage in war and conflict. She emphasised that cultural heritage must not be attacked and destroyed with impunity. The trial of Al Hasan on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes, including deliberate attacks on cultural property in Timbuktu is currently ongoing at the Court.

6 April 2021: Prime Minister Zdravko Krivokapic of Montenegro launched a procedure to dismiss the justice minister over his denial of the 1995 Srebrenica genocide. Vladimir Leposavic, the Minister of Justice, Human and Minority Rights questioned the legitimacy of international courts that ruled the Srebrenica massacre of over 8,000 Muslim men and boys by Bosnian Serb forces constituted genocide.

5 April 2021: The US government revoked its Executive Order 13928 which imposed sanctions against the International Criminal Court Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda and senior staff member Phakiso Mochochoko. The revocation also ends visa restrictions on certain ICC personnel. The decision of the US government was welcomed by the Court. 

2 April 2021: The BBC reports that a massacre in northern Ethiopia was carried out by members of the Ethiopian army, killing atleast 15 people. BBC Africa Eye uncovered evidence and investigated five video clips that surfaced on social media showing armed, uniformed men leading a group of unarmed men to the edge of a cliff, shooting at them and pushing the dead bodies over the cliff. The incident in the videos could amount to war crimes

1 April 2021: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court delivered its judgment on the Prosecutor's appeal against Trial Chamber I's decision acquitting Mr. Gbagbo and Mr. Blé Goudé of all charges of crime against humanity. The Chamber finalised the acquittal of Mr. Gbagbo and Mr Blé Goudé, with Judge Ibáñez and Judge Bossa dissenting from the majority opinion.

31 March 2021: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court, by majority confirmed the decision of Trial Chamber VI which found Bosco Ntaganda guilty of 18 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Further, it unanimously confirmed Mr. Ntaganda's sentence of a total of 30 years of imprisonment for crimes committed in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo in 2002-2003.

30 March 2021: Amnesty International reports that Boko Haram fighters targeted women and girls with rape and other sexual violence, amounting to war crimes. During violent raid in northeast Nigeria, Boko Haram fighters killed people trying to flee and looted livestock, money, and other valuables. The reports calls upon the International Criminal Court to investigate atrocities committed by all sides. 

29 March 2021: A historical commission set up by President Emmanuel Macron concluded that France bears 'overwhelming responsibility' over the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. The report states that France was 'blind' to the preparations of the massacre which saw the death of 800,000 people mainly from the ethnic Tutsi minority. 

26 March 2021: The UN and the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission will carry out a joint investigation into abuses in the region of Tigray including allegations of war crimes. The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission have emphasised the need for a probe of all parties in the conflict to ensure accountability.

25 March 2021: Mahmoud al-Werfalli, a senior Libyan military figure wanted for alleged war crimes has been shot dead by unidentified attackers in the city of Benghazi. He was indicted twice by the International Criminal Court for suspected killing of more than 40 captives.  

24 March 2021: The UN Human Rights Council in a recently passed resolution has authorised the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet to collect and preserve evidence of alleged war crimes committed during Sri Lanka's civil war, which ended in 2009. The resolution accuses Sri Lanka of obstructing accountability and called for trials of suspects in foreign countries. 

23 March 2021: Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed in his first public acknowledgment of possible war crimes has said that atrocities have been committed in Tigray where government troops continue to fight fugitive leaders. He said that soldiers who raped women or committed other war crimes will be held responsible.

22 March 2021: Human Rights Watch reports that the Egyptian military's continuing home demolitions and forced evictions during the armed conflict in North Sinai likely amount to war crimes. Between late 2013 and July 2020, the army destroyed at least 12,350 buildings, mostly homes and also razed, ruined, and closed off approximately 6,000 hectares of farmland.

19 March 2021: Belgian authorities have detained Pjeter Shala, a former Kosovo Liberation Army member after the Kosovo Specialist Chambers issued an indictment against him on charges of war crimes. He is expected to be tried for crimes committed during and after the war from 1998 to 2000 for murder, torture and illegal detention.  

18 March 2021: The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet has agreed to a request by the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission for a joint investigation in Tigray. She had previously expressed her concerns that possible war crimes may have been committed in Tigray, where the conflict has killed thousands of people and forced hundreds of thousands to flee from their homes. 

17 March 2021: Germany has arrested Bai L., a former member of Gambia's armed forces suspected of involvement in crimes against humanity under President Yahya Jammeh. The arrested individual is suspected to have belonged to the Gambian military's 'Patrol Team' known as 'Junglers' that were involved in executing illegal kill orders, intimidating the Gambian population and supressing opposition. 

16 March 2021: The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet urged countries to try suspected war criminals in Syria in their national courts. She mentioned the failed attempts to refer the atrocities to the International Criminal Court and emphasised on the need for national courts to "conduct fair, public and transparent trials and reduce the accountability gap for such serious crimes".

15 March 2021: The War Crimes Unit of the Metropolitan Police in the United Kingdom has opened an investigation into allegations that Asma al-Assad, wife of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad incited and encouraged terrorist acts in Syria. It is speculated that if convicted, she could be stripped of her UK citizenship. 

12 March 2021: Thomas Andrews, the UN Special Rapporteur for Myanmar noted the growing evidence of crimes against humanity by the country's military since its takeover of Myanmar's democratic government. Reports of murder, persecution, torture including deaths of 70 people and unlawful detention of over 2000 people have been reported.  

11 March 2021: Tomás Ojea-Quintana, the UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in North Korea, urged the UN Security Council to refer grave violations in North Korea to the International Criminal Court. He stated that the world powers will bear responsibility for ignoring crimes against humanity perpetrated by authorities in North Korea.

10 March 2021: A recently released independent report prepared by over 50 global experts allege that the Chinese government's actions in Xinjiang have violated every single provision in the United Nations' Genocide Convention. It is the first time a non-governmental organization has undertaken an independent legal analysis of the accusations of genocide in Xinjiang. 

9 March 2021: Amnesty International in its report released last week, documents the killing of hundreds of civilians in Mozambique who have been unlawfully killed by the armed group locally known as 'Al-Shabaab', government security forces and a private military company hired by the government. It is alleged that all three parties have committed war crimes, causing the deaths of hundreds of civilians and forcing many to flee. 

8 March 2021: Trial Chamber VI of the  International Criminal Court delivered an order announcing USD 30 million as reparations to victims in the case of The Prosecutor v. Bosco Ntaganda. In 2019 Mr. Ntaganda was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Ituri, Democratic Republic of the Congo and sentenced to 30 years of imprisonment. Both the the verdict and the sentence are under appeal. 

5 March 2021: Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court issued a public redacted version of its decision in The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo case, which approves the implementation of collective service-based reparations to victims. Thomas Lubanga was found guilty of co-perpetrating war crimes of conspiring and enlisting children under the age of 15 and using them to participate in hostilities.

4 March 2021: Chief Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda announced that the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court has opened a formal investigation into the situation in Palestine. The probe will cover allegations of war crimes and other international crimes in the region of West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza Strip since June 2014. 

3 March 2021: A group of Syrian chemical attack survivors and Syrian rights groups have a filed a criminal complaint in France over the two August 2013 attacks in Douma and the Damascas suburb of Eastern Ghouta. The complaint points to the alleged responsibility of the Syrian government in the attacks which could constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity.  

2 March 2021: UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria's latest report states that tens of thousands of civilians in Syria were arbitrarily detained in enforced disappearances during the country's 10 year conflict. The report suspects that thousands have been subjected to torture, sexual violence, and arbitrary detention, offences that can amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity.

1 March 2021: Amnesty International reports that Eritrean troops fighting in Ethiopia's Tigray region, systematically killed hundreds of unarmed civilians in the northern city of Axum on 28-29 November 2020 in a massacre that may amount of crimes against humanity. Survivors interviews and satellite imagery analysis indicate widespread looting and shelling, as well as signs of mass burials near two of the city's churches.  

26 February 2021:
The Dutch parliament passed a non-binding motion declaring that the treatment of the Uighur Muslim minority in China amounts to genocide. The motion said that actions of Chinese government such as “measures intended to prevent births” and “having punishment camps” fell under the Genocide Convention. The Netherlands is the first European country to make such a declaration. 

25 February 2021: The trial of Gibril Ealoghima Massaquoi, a suspected warlord from Sierra Leone has started in Finland. According to prosecutors, Mr. Gibril was a senior member of a rebel group that fought in Liberia from 1999 to 2003. He is accused of committing war crimes of killing civilians and soldiers who had just been disarmed, rape and recruiting child soldiers. 

24 February 2021: Eyad al-Gharib, a former Syrian intelligence service agent was sentenced to four and a half years in jail by a German court for complicity in crimes against humanity over state sponsored torture by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's government. This landmark trial on the principle of universal jurisdiction began in Germany last year. 

23 February 2021: China rejected allegations about possible crimes against humanity and genocide being committed against Uighurs in the Xinjiang region of the country. Foreign Minister of China, Wang Li addressed the United Nations Human Rights Council and mentioned the presence of mosques in the region, emphasised that Xinjiang is open to visitors and called upon the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet to visit Xinjiang. 

22 February 2021: Argentina convicted eight men for committing crimes against humanity in the 'ESMA IV' trial. The trial probed crimes that took place at the ex-Navy Mechanics School during the military dictatorship between 1976-1983 and held those convicted, responsible for illegal deprivation, torture, homicide and sexual assault. 

19 February 2021: Amnesty International has called for the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to consider probable extrajudicial executions in its preliminary examination of crimes against humanity allegedly committed by state agents in Venezuela. This request was made after evidence verified by its Crisis Evidence Lab, as a part of its new open-source investigation, revealed the deaths of at least 14 men in the La Vega area of Caracas, between 6 and 9 January 2021.

18 February 2021: The hearing in the case of The Prosecutor v. Alfred Yekatom and Patrice Edouard Ngaïssona commenced on 16 February 2021 and continued till 18 February 2021 at Trial Chamber V of the International Criminal Court. The defendants are under trial for war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in the Central African Republic. The trial is scheduled to resume on 15 March 2021, when the Prosecution will begin to present its evidence and call its witnesses before the judges.

17 February 2021: Amnesty International reports that, a decade since the overthrow of Muammar al-Gaddafi, justice is yet to be delivered to victims of war crimes in Libya. Protests erupted in Libya in February 2011 leading to serious human rights violations including torture, forced displacement and abductions by armed groups and militia. Libyan authorities have subsequently promoted and legitimised leaders of militias responsible for heinous acts of abuse.

16 February 2021: The trial of a Liberian rebel commander for war crimes has resumed in Switzerland. Alieu Kosiah, a former commander of the United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy faces allegations of rape, executions and cannibalism against him. Liberian victims are set to testify against him in this case of universal jurisdiction under Swiss law.  

15 February 2021: British lawyer, Karim Khan was elected by more than 120 countries to be the next prosecutor of the International Criminal Court. He is scheduled to assume the role in June 2021 and lead the Office of the Prosecutor in examining, investigating and prosecuting alleged perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and aggression under the Court's jurisdiction. 

12 February 2021: The International Criminal Tribunal Bangladesh has sentenced three individuals to imprisonment unto death for committing crimes against humanity during the 1971 Liberation War. Those convicted are Md Shamsuzzaman alias Abul Kalam, AFM Foyjullah and Abdur Razzak Mandal. Unlike Abul Kalam, AFM Foyjullah and Abdur Razzak were tried in absentia.

11 February 2021: Trial Chamber V of the International Criminal Court has postponed the opening of the trial in the case of The Prosecutor v. Alfred Yekatom and Patrice-Edouard Ngaïssona due to unexpected Covid-19 related issues. The trial will now commence on 16 February 2021. Mr Yekatom and Mr Ngaïssona are accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in the Central African Republic.

10 February 2021: Radoslav Brdjanin, who is serving a 30 year sentence for crimes against humanity has requested the U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals to grant him an early release. The wartime political leader of the short-lived Autonomous Region of Krajina in northern Bosnia had previously applied for early release in March 2020, which was rejected on grounds of seriousness of his offences and his failure to demonstrate sufficient rehabilitation. 

9 February 2021: A formal legal opinion published in the UK claims that there is a very credible case that the Chinese government is carrying out genocide against its Uighur population. The opinion concludes that there is evidence of a state-mandated behaviour with an intent to destroy the Uighur population in north-western China. This opinion was commissioned by the Global Legal Action Network, World Uighur Congress and Uighur Human Rights Project. 

8 February 2021: Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court decided, by majority, that the Court's territorial jurisdiction in the Situation in Palestine, extends to the territories occupied by Israel, namely Gaza and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. The Prosecutor had seized the Chamber, requesting a ruling on the scope of the Court's territorial jursdiction before investigating alleged war crimes in the Situation in Palestine. 

5 February 2021: The International Criminal Court found Dominic Ongwen guilty for a total of 61 counts of crimes against humanity and war crimes. It was for the first time that sexual and gender based crimes of forced pregnancy and forced marriage were adjudicated by the Court. Dominic Ongwen was a former leader on the Lord's Resistance Army in Uganda. 

4 February 2021: The UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights has released a report warning against potential crimes against humanity in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The warning follows an increase in attacks by the Alllied Democratic Forces (ADF) armed group, in two provinces of the country. The report recommends DRC authorities to ensure that security forces act in accordance to international human rights law and international humanitarian law. 

3 February 2021: The United Nations released a report stating that torture and forced labour are rife in North Korea's prisons amounting to possible crimes against humanity The report was issued seven years after a UN investigation had found that crimes against humanity were being committed in North Korea. The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights called upon the UN Security Council to refer North Korea to the International Criminal Court for prosecutions or establish an ad hoc tribunal.

2 February 2021: The United States has initiated an Independent Inquiry into Special Operations and War Crimes. In the Inquiry the Defense Department Inspector General will examine whether US Commando forces are doing enough to comply with the laws of armed conflict and hold violators accountable. 

1 February 2021: The Syrian Justice and Accountability Centre, a Washington-based Syrian rights group filed a case with the International Criminal Court, calling for an investigation into alleged crimes against humanity by Greece for its mistreatment of refugees. The group has said that, witness testimony and video evidence back its claims of mistreatment and abuse of refugees at Greece's borders and inside overcrowded camps.

29 January 2021: Colombia's Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP) accused eight former commanders of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) fighters of war crimes and crimes against humanity for taking hostages during the country’s internal armed conflict. This is the first time since the signing of the 2016 peace deal that the JEP has attributed criminal responsibility to former leaders of FARC, which demobilised to reintegrate with society.

28 January 2021: The UN Human Rights Chief, Michelle Bachelet has called for an International Criminal Court investigation into Sri Lanka's Tamil separatist conflict and sanctions on military officials accused of war crimes, according to a report obtained by the AFP new agency. She accused Sri Lanka of reneging on promises to ensure justice for thousands of civilians killed in the final stages of the 37-year separatist war that ended 10 years ago. 

27 January 2021:
Brazilian President Jair Bolsanaro could face charges in the International Criminal Court after being accused of crimes against humanity. Indigenous leaders in Brazil and human rights groups are urging the court to investigate the Brazilian president over his dismantling of environmental policies and violations of indigenous rights, which they say amount to ecocide. William Bourdon, a Paris-based lawyer, submitted a request for a preliminary examination to the Court.

26 January 2021: Sakib Mahmuljin, a former Bosnian army general has been sentenced to 10 years in prison for war crimes. He was deemed responsible for failing to stop killings and torture carried out by foreign fighters who joined his force during Bosnia and Herzegovina's 1990s war and killed over 50 ethnic Serb prisoners in central Bosnia.

25 January 2021: Mr. Mahamat Said Abdel Kani was surrendered by the authorities of the Central African Republic on account of an International Criminal Court arrest warrant issued under seal. Mr. Said is suspected of committing crimes against humanity and war crimes in Bangui, Central African Republic in 2013. His initial appearance before the Single Judge of Pre-Trial Chamber II, Judge Rosario Salvatore Aitala, will take place in due course.

22 January 2021: The European Union has expressed concern over reports of ethnic-targeted killings and possible war crimes in Ethiopia's northern region of Tigray. EU foreign chief Josep Borrell said in the statement that, "We receive consistent reports of ethnic-targeted violence, killings, massive looting, rapes, forceful returns of refugees to Eritrea and possible war crimes". With over two million forced to flee their homes, people in Tigray continue to be in desperate need of humanitarian aid.

21 January 2021: Foreign minister Stef Blok of The Netherlands has announced that an amount of €2 million would be set aside to support UN teams at the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, involved in fact finding investigations and seeking justice for victims of serious human rights violations. This announcement was made at an online event where the need to adopt other methods to counter the obstruction the work of the International Criminal Court by countries, was also emphasised. 

20 January 2021: US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo has stated that the Trump administration has determined that China has committed genocide and crimes against humanity against Uighur Muslims in their repression in the region of Xinjiang, China. The determination was made on the basis of exhaustive documentation of events since March 2017. 

19 January 2021: Al Jazeera reports that, former members of the Marxist Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) rebel group have expressed concern for their lives. The FARC who were accused of committing serious war crimes in a five-decade long conflict, surrendered their weapons to a UN peace mission in 2017. Since the deal, 253 former fighters have been killed including four this year but it is unclear who the perpetrators are, further complicating the peace process. The United Nations Security Council repeated its call for more attention to the security issues affecting former rebels and human rights activists in Colombia.

18 January 2021: The House of Lords in UK rejected the Covert Human Intelligence Sources (Criminal Conduct) Bill. The Parliamentary Joint Committee on Human Rights said the proposed law “raises the abhorrent possibility of serious crimes such as rape, murder or torture being carried out under an authorisation”. The Bill will be sent back to the House of Commons for consideration.

15 January 2021: The Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC) of the United States Congress has declared that in its report that new evidence had emerged in the past year indicating that crimes against humanity and possibly genocide are occurring against Uighurs in the Xinjiang province of China. Al Jazeera notes that, China has been widely condemned for setting up complexes in Xinjiang that it describes as vocational training centres to stamp out extremism and give people new skills, but others have called them concentration camps.

14 January 2021: Human Rights Watch in its World Report 2021 has declared that Yemen's armed conflict continued to violate the laws of war over the past year, including with new apparent war crimes. It calls upon the international communtity to undertake international justice efforts to address the dire humanitarian crisis in Yemen which has been further exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic.  

13 January 2021: The British foreign secretary has stated that China's treatment of Uighur people amounts to torture. He said that he has set out measures designed to ensure no companies allow the use of forced labour from Xinjiang province in their supply chain. He also proposed a review of export controls to Xinjiang province but refrained from imposing sanctions. 

12 January 2021: The Special Department for War Crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina has filed for an indictment against seven persons for committing crimes against humanity during the armed conflict. They are accused of violating Article 172 of the Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the widespread and systematic attack that was carried out in the spring and summer of 1992. 

11 January 2021: A South Korean court ordered Japan to compensate 12 women who were forced to work in its wartime brothels as comfort women, a Japanese euphemism for sex abuse victims. Justice Kim Jeong-gon said in the ruling that, "it was a crime against humanity that was systematically, deliberately and extensively committed by Japan in breach of international norms". Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga said Japan could not accept the court ruling and said the lawsuit should be dropped.

8 January 2021: Uganda's main opposition leader, Bobi Wine, has submitted a request to the International Criminal Court to investigate President Yoweri Museveni and other senior officals for human rights abuses allegedly committed in 2018. The International Criminal Court has previously investigated alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity in Uganda. 

7 January 2021: The trial of Predag Bastah, former reservist officer with the Bosnian police’s Public Security Station in Vlasenica, opened at the Bosnian state court. He is accused of crimes against humanity for his involvement in the execution of 37 civilian prisoners at Mracni Dol in the Vlasenica municipality during the Bosnian war. 

6 January 2021: Anti-terror prosecutors in France have announced the arrest of Roger Lumbala, former head of a rebel group in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on charges of complicity in crimes against humanity. He is suspected by UN investigators of carrying out extrajudicial killings, rapes and cannibalism during the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1998-2002.

5 January 2021: The U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals declined a request for early release from Dragoljub Kunarac, the wartime leader of a Bosnian Serb Army reconnaissance unit, who was convicted for crimes against humanity for committing multiple rapes and the enslavement of two women in the Foca area during the Bosnian conflict. Judge Carmel Agius, stated that although Kunarac is eligible for early release since he has served two-thirds of his 28-year sentence, his "failure to sufficiently demonstrate rehabilitation and the high gravity of his crimes weigh heavily against his early release".

4 January 2021: The U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals declined a request from Vujadin Popovic the former chief of security of the Bosnian Serb Army’s Drina Corps, to be released on probation for the rest of his life sentence. He was found guilty of committing genocide when more than 7,000 Bosniak men and boys were killed in the days after the UN-declared ‘safe zone’ of Srebenica was overrun by Bosnian Serb forces on July 11, 1995.

24 December 2020: Pre-Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court decided to postpone the commencement of the confirmation hearing in the case of The Prosecutor v. Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman to Monday, 24 May 2021. The hearing had been scheduled to commence on 22 February 2021. Mr Abd–Al-Rahman is charged with 53 counts on the basis of his individual criminal responsibility for war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Darfur, Sudan.

23 December 2020: United Nations investigators into violence in Mali informed the Security Council of evidence indicating that security forces committed war crimes, and fighters and other armed groups perpetrated crimes against humanity in Mali. The International Commission of Mali, a three-member panel investigated the violence that unfolded over six year from 2012-2018, made these allegatons in a 338-page report which is yet to be made public. 

22 December 2020: The United Nations is striving to get a team on the ground to investigate alleged human rights violations, including a mass killing in Tigray that could potentially amount to war crimes. Ethiopia’s army has been fighting rebellious forces in the northern Tigray region for more than six weeks in a conflict that has displaced close to 950,000 people. Access for humanitarian workers has until recent days been impossible and rights workers are now seeking access on the ground to verify reports.

21 December 2020: Nine persons have been charged for crimes against humanity in Sokolac in Bosnia and Herzegovina. They are accused of joint criminal enterprise in the widespread and systematic attack on the Bosniak civilian population in 1992. The accused's are charged with the criminal offence of crimes against humanity under Article 172 of the Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

18 December 2020: The Australian government has appointed Judge Mark Weinberg as the special investigator to probe allegations that Austalian special force soldiers committed war crimes in Afghanistan. Mark Weinberg is a Victoria court of appeal judge with extensive criminal law experience, who is scheduled to begin the probe in early 2021. 

17 December 2020: The International Criminal Court's Office of the Prosecutor in its Annual Report on Preliminary Examinations Activities 2020, declared that there is reasonable basis to believe that the Philippines has committed crimes against humanity in connection with its so-called war on drugs operation. A final decision into a formal preliminary examination would come in the first half of 2021, owing to delay caused by the coronavirus pandemic. 

16 December 2020: The International Criminal Court prosecutors have rejected calls by exiled Uighurs to investigate China for alleged genocide and crimes against humanity. The Office of the Prosecutor in its Annual Report on Preliminary Examinations Activities 2020, stated that it was unable to act because majority of the crimes alleged do not meet the Court's territorial jurisdiction requirements. 

15 December 2020: Azerbaijan has arrested four soldiers suspected of involvement in war crimes. They are accused of defiling the bodies of Armenian soldiers, inhumanely mistreating Armenian troops, and defacing gravestones belonging to Armenians. Azerbaijan's Prosecutor's office has issued a statement warning that anyone else suspected of similar war crimes would face similar legal action. 

14 December 2020: Chief Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda of the International Criminal Court has announced the closing of preliminary examination into the situations in Ukraine and Nigeria and will request authorisation from the Pre-Trial Chamber to open investigations. The Office of the Prosecutor concluded that there is reasonable basis to believe that war crimes and crimes against humanity have been committed in the situation in Ukraine. With respect to the situation in Nigeria, the Office of the Prosecutor recognised criminality attributable to non-state actors as well as members of the Nigerian Security Forces.   

11 December 2020:
Amnesty International reports that it has investigated and verified videos depicting mistreatment of prisoners of war and claims that both Azerbaijani and Armenian forces have committed war crimes. Videos circulated on private Telegram groups form the recent fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh region apparently capture the decapication of captives and the desecration of the corpses of opposing forces. 

10 December 2020: The Office of The Prosecutor (OTP) at the International Criminal Court has announed the conclusion of the preliminary examination into the situation in Iraq/United Kingdom (UK). While confirming reasonable basis to believe that members of the British armed forces committed war crimes in Iraq, the OTP acknowledged efforts made by the UK authorities in investigating the allegations and decided to not open an investigation.  

9 December 2020: Amnesty International reports that, a group of United Nations human rights experts have written to the Iranian government warning that past and ongoing violations related to prison massacres in 1988 may amount to crimes against humanity and that they will call for an international investigation if these violations persist. Between late July and early September 1988, thousands of imprisoned political dissidents across Iran were forcibly disappeared and then extrajudicially executed in secret, and information regarding this is still systematically concealed. 

8 December 2020: Michelle Bachelet, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights expressed concern over the situation on Belarus and said that reported beatings of protesters by security forces may in some cases amount to torture. She said she was “alarmed by the numerous allegations of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment in custody,” by the harassment and arrests of many journalists and human rights advocates, and by disciplinary action against teachers and students. 

7 December 2020: 
Members of the Philippine army have been accused of committing a war crime, after posing for a photo with the body of a suspected communist rebel fighter belonging to the New People's Army. The Maoist-led rebel group has been engaged in on-and-off talks with the Philippine government in a bid to end half a century of conflict in which tens of thousands of people have died and thousands of others forced from their homes.

4 December 2020: The State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina has found two Bosnian Serbs guilty of crimes against humanity committed within a widespread and systematic attack By the military, paramilitary and police forces of Republika Srpska, RS. Radovan Paprica and Macak, were sentenced to eight years each in prison and ordered to pay compensation to the victim. 

3 December 2020: The United Kingdom has opened an investigation into allegations of war crimes by British mercenaries involved in the Sri Lankan civil war. The Metropolitan police received a referral concerning war crimes committed in Sri Lanka in the 1980's after which it carried out a scoping exercise. The Metropolitan Police, which is the UK force designated to investigate accusations of war crimes or human rights abuses, will investigate multiple atrocities including the 1987 prawn farm massacre in which 83 people were killed.

2 December 2020: Trial of former Liberian commander accused of war crimes including rape, pillage, and assassinations has begun in Switzerland. Alieu Kosiah was allegedly involved in the Liberian conflict from 1989-2003 which killed nearly a quarter of a million people. It is Switzerland's first war crimes trial to be heard outside of a military court. 

1 December 2020: Trial Chamber IX of the International Criminal Court announced that the judgment on conviction or acquittal in the case The Prosecutor v. Dominic Ongwen will be delivered on 4 February 2021. The delivery was initially scheduled for 12 January 2021. Dominic Ongwen is accused of 70 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in northern Uganda.

30 November 2020: The United Nations has expressed concern about possible war crimes after a threat by the Ethiopian army to start an assualt on the northern Tigray region's capital. Fighting between the government and regional forces in Tigray has been going on for over three weeks. A deadline set by the government for fighters in the region to surrender expired last Wednesday.

27 November 2020: The Australian Defence Force has sent notice of likely dismissal to 13 special forces soldiers following the report on the alleged war crimes committed in Afghanistan. They are suspected of being accessories or witnesses to the killing of 39 Afghan civilians and prisoners, or of being dishonest in testifying. They are separate from the 19 Special Air Service troops who could face prosecution for the murders.

26 November 2020: Azerbaijan has declared that it is investigating war crimes committed by Armenian and Azerbaijani forces during the six weeks of fighting over the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region. Azerbaijan's Prosecutor General Kamran Aliyev told that four ethnic Armenian leaders, including the president of the unrecognised Nagorno-Karabakh republic, Arayik Harutyunyan were charged with war crimes in absentia.

25 November 2020: A former militia leader in the Democratic Republic of Congo has been sentenced to life in prison for war crimes and mass rape. Natabo Ntaberi Sheka was convicted of murder, rape, sexual slavery and enlisting children under 15 years old, by a military court at the end of a two year trial. The decision has been hailed by the United Nations as a blow to the impunity provided to armed group in the country. 

24 November 2020: The Guardian reports that, according to human rights lawyers and activists, Myanmar is continuing to commit genocide against Rohingya Muslims. The International Court of Justice had ordered Myanmar to cease the commission of genocidal acts, prevent the destruction of evidence of crimes against the Rohingya's and report back every six months.

23 November 2020: The Australian defence chief, General Angus Campbell says he accepts that officers and more senior commanders bear some responsibility for the handling of alleged war crimes against special forces in Afghanistan. Campbell said that he was "determined to see deep, comprehensive and enduring change where it is needed" to prevent repetition of such horror.

20 November 2020: Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission has urged the UK government to establish an independent inquiry to review and investigate possible war crimes by British special forces in Afghanistan. This call comes after reports of unlawful killings of Afghans by Australian forces were confirmed by an inquiry into the same. Shaharzad Akbar, Chairperson of the Commission said that US, UK and other countries with armed presence in Afghanistan should investigate allegations of acts of violence against Afghans. 

19 November 2020: The Australian Defence Force has released findings from a four-year inquiry into misconduct by its forces in Afghanistan. It said 19 current or ex-special forces soldiers should be investigated by police over killings of "prisoners, farmers or civilians" between 2009-2013. The inquiry conducted by Major Gen Justice Paul Brereton, also found evidence of possible war crimes committed by the forces. 

18 November 2020: Defence lawyers for former leaders of the Kosovo guerrillas, including ex-president Hashim Thaçi said that their trial on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity cannot begin before the summer of 2022 at the earliest. A Prosecution lawyer told at the hearing at the Kosovo Specialist Chambers that the trial could start in the summer of 2021. The trial concerns charges including murder, torture and illegal imprisonment allegedly committed during Kosovo's 1998-99 battle for independence from Serbia. 

17 November 2020: The Guardian reports that the British Foreign Office is resisting publishing files relating to its diplomatic support for British mercenaries in Sri Lanka in the 1980's. This resistance comes despite the Metropolitan police launching an unprecedented inquiry into potential war crimes by Keenie Meenie Services, one of Britain's first mercenary companies. The Met launched a scoping exercise in March into allegations of war crimes committed by the firm, and this has now been elevated into a fully fledged inquiry. 

16 November 2020: Amnesty International has confirmed that hundreds of people were stabbed or hacked to death in Mai-Kadra (May Cadera) town in the South West Zone of Ethiopia’s Tigray Region on the night of 9 November. It is apprehended that forces loyal to the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) were responsible for the mass killings, apparently after they suffered defeat from the federal EDF forces. Deprose Muchena, Amnesty International’s Director for East and Southern Africa stated that, "TPLF commanders and officials must make clear to their forces and their supporters that deliberate attacks on civilians are absolutely prohibited and constitute war crimes". 

13 November 2020: The initial appearance in the case of Prosecutor v. Félicien Kabuga before the U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals was held in The Hague before Judge Iain Bonomy, the Presiding Judge of the Trial Chamber. Mr. Félicien Kabuga stands charged of seven counts of genocide and crimes against humanity. The initial appearance was held exceptionally in The Hague, where Mr. Kabuga is undergoing a detailed medical assessment to determine his fitness to travel to the Mechanism's Arusha branch for trial.

12 November 2020: Australian Prime Minister, Scott Morrison announced that a special investigator will be appointed to investigate and possibly prosecute alleged war crimes committed by Australian special forces in Afghanistan. The final inquiry report examining more than 55 incidents of alleged unlawful killings between 2005 and 2016 by the special forces will be released next week. 

11 November 2020: The Guardian reports that the inquiry into alleged war crimes by Australian special forces in Afghanistan has delivered its final report. Defence Chief Anugua Campbell confirmed that he had received the report which examines the conduct of Australian forces in more than 55 incidents of alleged unlawful killings between 2005 and 2016. Delivery of the report follows Afghan and Australian human rights groups last week urging the Australian government to release in full the details of the inquiry into the alleged war crimes.

10 November 2020: The Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court has been urged by an international alliance of parliamentarians to accept a complaint alleging genocide by China against its Uighur Muslim minority. The complaint, backed by more that 60 parliamentarians from 16 countries, says the Chinese government may be committing crimes amounting to genocide and other crimes against humanity against the Uighur and other Turkic peoples. 

9 November 2020: Ao An, a former senior Khmer Rouge official and suspect at the Extraordinary Chamber in the Courts of Cambodia died at the age of 87 in Battambang province. He was charged for genocide against the Cham people in Kamping province, crimes against humanity as well as violations of the 1956 Penal Code. 

6 November 2020: Kosovo’s president, Hashim Thaçi, a guerrilla leader during the country’s war for independence from Serbia in the 1990s, has resigned to face charges for war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Kosovo Specialist Chambers in The Hague. Thaçi announced his resignation at a news conference in Pristina, Kosovo’s capital. He said he was taking the step “to protect the integrity of the presidency of Kosovo”.

5 November 2020: Jakup Krasniqi, a veteran Kosovo politician and former spokesman for the Kosovo Liberation Army, has been arrested and transferred to The Hague. He will face charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Kosovo Specialist Chambers. Jakup Krasniqi is being tried for his involvement in the war between 1998 and 1999 that eventually led to Kosovo's independence from Serbia 10 years later.

4 November 2020: A cross-party parliamentary committee in the United Kingdom has described the Overseas Operations Bill as violative of international law. The Bill that was introduced last month, seeks to exempt British soldiers from prosecution for crimes including genocide, war crimes and torture. The Independent reports that, the government insists that it is open for dialogue on possible changes to the Bill but has dismissed every amendment put forward. 

3 November 2020:
The Al Jazeera reports that 72 nations have offered their unwavering support to the International Criminal Court. This affirmation was made in a joint declaration signed by the countries including Australia, Canada, France and the United Kingdom. On September 2, the administration of US President Donald Trump imposed sanctions on the Court's Chief Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda and other officals involved in investigating alleged war crimes committed by US troops in Afghanistan.  

2 November 2020:
Mr. Paul Gicheru has surrendered to the authorities in The Netherlands pursuant to an arrest warrant issues against him by the Pre-Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court. Mr. Gicheru is suspected of offences against the administration of justice consisting of corruptly influencing witnesses regarding cases from the sitation in Kenya. Kenya is currently under investigation for alleged crimes against humanity in the post-election violence in 2007-2008. 

30 October 2020: The Guardian reports that Afghan and Australian human rights groups have urged the Australian government to release an inquiry into the allegations of the special forces war crimes in Afghanistan committed between 2005 to 2016. More that 20 organisations published an open letter to the assistant inspector-general of the Australian Defence Force, Maj Gen Justice Paul Brereton, who is leading the inquiry into the conduct of elite forces in more than 55 incidents of alleged unlawful killings. Reports suggest Justice Brereton’s findings will focus on a small group of special forces troops alleged to be largely responsible for alleged war crimes.

29 October 2020: Authorities in Bosnia have detained two people suspected of taking part in the killing of at least 78 civilians during the 1992-1995 war. They were identified and located following an order of a prosecutor of the Special Department for War crimes. They have been charged with crimes against humanity under the Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

28 October 2020: In Argentina, eighteen people have gone on trial on charges of crimes against humanity and torture. According to the prosecution, they were responsible for baby theft and killings carried out in detention centres under military rule between 1976 and 1983. The Prosecutors have claimed that, "torture was systematic" and sexual violence an integral part of the attempts to dehumanise those detained". 

27 October 2020: Rwandan genocide suspect Felicien Kabuga has been transferred to the custody of U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals in The Hague. His transfer comes over 22 years after his first indictment for his alleged involvemnet in the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Last week Judge Iain Bonomy ordered that Felicien Kabuga would be transferred to The Hague for a medical assessment amid concerns about this health and the coronavirus pandemic. In The Hague his health will be assessed to establish if he is fit enough to be flown at a later date to Arusha to stand trial there. The 87 year old Rwandan genocide suspect was arrested in Paris in May, 2020. Earlier this month, a court in Paris approved Félicien Kabuga's extradition to Arusha, Tanzania to face trial.  

26 October 2020: The Gambia submitted its memorial to the International Court of Justice in its lawsuit against Myanmar for failing to prevent genocide against Rohingyas. Myanmar has three months to file a counter-memorial. The memorial and counter-memorial will not be made public for the duration of the trial. Simultaneously, the International Criminal Court is continuing to investigate crimes within its jurisdiction committted against the Rohingyas and in the Rakhine State of Myanmar.  

23 October 2020: Judge Iain Bonomy of the U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals ruled that Felicien Kabuga would be transferred to The Hague for a medical assessment amid concerns about this health and the coronavirus pandemic. In The Hague his health will be assessed to establish if he is fit enough to be flown at a later date to Arusha to stand trial there. The ruling has been made in response to the request of the defense lawyer of Félicien Kabuga, who had appealed to not send him to Tanzania to face trial and instead transfer him to The Hague, citing health concerns. The 87 year old Rwandan genocide suspect was arrested in Paris in May, 2020. Earlier this month, a court in Paris approved Félicien Kabuga's extradition to Arusha, Tanzania to face trial. 

22 October 2020: Civil society groups have urged countries convening a UN-backed Rohingya donor conference to acknowledge that genocide was committed against the ethnic minority of Rohingya in Myanmar. They assert that a genocide determination would send a sense of urgency to spur multilateral diplomatic engagement and pressure needed to stop Myanmar from committing further atrocities against the Rohingyas. The virtual aid conference is co-hosted by the United Kingdom, the United Nations refugee agency (UNHCR), the United States and European Union.    

21 October 2020: The International Criminal Court's Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda issued a statement at a media briefing in Khatoum, Sudan welcoming the Juba Peace Agreement and the committment to cooperate between Sudan and the Court. She mentioned that while the Court was investigating genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes committed by five Sudanese suspects, other suspects could be prosecuted through the Darfur Special Court, allowing for positive burden sharing between the ICC and Sudanese courts. 

20 October 2020: Human Rights Watch declares that the North Korean pretrial detention and investigation system is arbitrary and lacks any semblance of due process. The report titled, "Worth Less Than an Animal: Abuses and Due Process Violations in Pretial Detention in North Korea" specifically highlights pretrial abuses of detainees as gross human rights violations. In 2014, the UN Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in North Korea said that the systematic human rights violations committed by the North Korean government constituted crimes against humanity

19 October 2020: The International Criminal Court's delegation including its Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda arrived at Sudan to discuss the cases of Al-Bashir and two other former officials of Sudanese government wanted on charges of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Sudanese Prime Minister, Abdalla Hamdok expressed commitment to achieving justice and cooperating with the International Criminal Court.

16 October 2020: Human Rights Watch has accused the Syria-Russia alliance of committing possible war crimes and crimes against humanity by attacking civilians in rebel-held Idlib province. The report, titled Targeting Life in Idlib - Syrian and Russian Strikes on Civilian Infrastructure, examines 46 attacks on civilian infratructure such as schools and hospitals in Idlib during the 11-month offensive and calls for sanctions against 10 top military officials involved.

15 October 2020: Amnesty International reports that Ecuador’s largest Indigenous organisation has filed a lawsuit against President Lenin Moreno and other officials for alleged crimes against humanity committed during protests last October that left 10 people dead. The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) asked the prosecutor’s office on Monday to investigate “crimes against humanity” because they believe the crackdown was “a systematic and widespread attack on the civilian population,” the group’s lawyer, Carlos Poveda said. 

14 October 2020: UN Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals announced that Milan Lukic, wartime leader of a Bosnian Serb paramilitary group has filed for appeal to reconsider the judgment that found him guilty of wartime crimes. Milan Lukic was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to life imprisonment in 2012. He is currently serving his sentence in Estonia. 

13 October 2020: According to new evidence gathered by Amnesty International, there have recently been indiscriminate attacks on civilians in Rakhine State, amid serious escalations in the ongoing armed conflict between the Myanmar military and the Arakan Army. This evidence is based on firsthand testimony, photographs and video obtained from inside Rakhine State, and analysis of satellite imagery as well as media reports and civil society sources. This barely one month since the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet told the Human Rights Council that in some recent cases in Rakhine State, civilians appeared to have been indiscriminately targeted or attacked, actions that may "constitute further war crimes or even crimes against humanity.”

12 October 2020: The Office of the German Federal Public Prosecutor confirmed that it received a criminal complaint submitted by a group of NGOs accusing Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's government for committing war crimes by using chemical weapons and targeting citizens. The chemical attacks that occured in Syria twice, in 2013 and 2017, are being considered under the principle of universal jurisdiction in Germany. 

9 October 2020: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court yesterday confirmed the decision of Pre-Trial Chamber II to reject the interim release of Ali Muhammad Ali Abd–Al-Rahman. Judge Piotr Hofmański, Presiding judge on this appeal, read a summary of the judgment in open Court. Mr Abd–Al-Rahman, also known as Ali Kushayb, is charged with 53 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Darfur, Sudan, on the basis of his individual criminal responsibility.

8 October 2020: Allegations of a leak of Kosovo war crimes case documents from the Specialist prosecutor's Office in The Hague could compromise witnesses' safety and hinder the prosecution of serious crimes. It is suspected that three batches of confidential Prosecutor's Office file, including the names of protected witnesses and other highly senstive information, were delivered to the Kosovo Liberation Army War Veternas's Organisation in Pristina by anonymous couriers in September. Apparently, the files, whose authenticity has neither been independently verified nor denied, have been returned to the Prosecutor's Office. 

7 October 2020: The defense lawyer of Félicien Kabuga, has appealed to not send him to Tanzania to face trial and instead transfer him to The Hague, citing health concerns. Lawyer Emmanuel Altit has made the request in writing to the U.N. International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals. The 87 year old Rwandan genocide suspect was arrested in Paris in May, 2020. Last week a court in Paris approved of Félicien Kabuga's extradition to Arusha, Tanzania to face trial. 

6 October 2020: Human Rights Watch reports that the UK government is seeking parliament’s approval of a law, the Overseas Operations Bill, that would make it nearly impossible to prosecute British soldiers for torture and other war crimes committed overseas. HRW argues that the Bill would make it very difficult to prosecute genuine cases by creating a “presumption against prosecution” after five years for torture and other war crimes allegedly committed by members of UK forces overseas. The human rights organisation added that the new law would increase the power of the attorney general, a member of the government, to protect soldiers from prosecution and urged parliament to reject it. 

5 October 2020: The Belgian police last week arrested three men suspected of being involved in the Rwandan genocide. Rwandan state media has identified the three suspects as Pierre Basabose, Seraphin Twahirwa and Christophe Ndangali. The Belgian Prosecutor's office continues to investigate the matter  while the three Rwandan nationals have been charged with serious human rights abuses and have been held under preventive detention. 

2 October 2020: A team of prominent US human rights lawyers are suing the Trump administration over an executive order they say has gagged them and halted their work pursuing justice on behalf of war crimes victims around the world. As a result of the order in June threatening “serious consequences” for anyone giving support to the work of the international criminal court in the Hague, the lawyers say they have had to cancel speeches and presentations, end research, abandon writing ICC-related articles and dispensing advice and assistance to victims of atrocities.

1 October 2020: The French civil court ruled yesterday that Rwandan genocide suspect Felicien Kabuga can be handed over to a United Nations tribunal in Tanzania, dismissing his lawyers’ arguments that he is too frail to be extradited. UN prosecutors accuse the former tea and coffee tycoon of bankrolling and importing huge numbers of machetes for ethnic Hutu fighters that killed hundreds of thousands of Tutsis and moderate Hutus in Rwanda during a 100-day period in 1994.

30 September 2020: The Hague-based Kosovo Specialist Chambers have begun hearings on war crimes committed by Kosovo’s former separatist fighters, more than two decades after its war for independence from Serbia and nine years after a prosecutor was first appointed to investigate reports of atrocities. The Court has ordered the arrest of three former members of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), who were detained by EU police and transferred to the Netherlands. Two of them have already appeared before a judge, in a specially built courtroom fitted with transparent screens as a precaution against coronavirus.

29 September 2020: According to SkyNews investigations, evidence of a recent war crime has been discovered in Northern Yemen, alleged to have been orchestrated by the Saudi-led coalition, which is backed by the United States and Britain. The journalists claim to have gathered the evidence by examining the area and talking to multiple eyewitnesses as well as survivors of a recent massacre in the remote village of Washah near the Yemeni-Saudi border where there was an airstrike on a family home.

28 September 2020: The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) announced via twitter that French prosecutors had opened a formal investigation of BNP Paribas over its alleged complicity in crimes against humanity, genocide and torture in Sudan. Nearly a year ago, nine sudanese victims filed a complaint, with the help of the FIDH and Project Expedite Justice, against BNP Paribas for its involvement in the atrocities committed in Sudan between 2002 and 2008. The complaint alleged that BNP Paribas and its Swiss subsidiary served as the “de facto” bank for the Sudanese government at a time when the government committed massive human rights violations. 

25 September 2020: Former Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) commander during the 1998-99 Kosovo conflict, Salih Mustafa, has been arrested in Kosovo and transferred to the Kosovo war crimes tribunal’s detention center in the Netherlands, the court said. The indictment charges Mustafa, 48, with four counts of war crimes including the beating and torture of at least six people and one murder. According to the indictment, Mustafa led a guerilla unit which ran a detention facility and interrogation site where inmates were beaten, tortured, given electric shocks and urinated on.

24 September 2020: According to the UN-backed Residual Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals in The Hague, Milivoj Petkovic has already been transferred to a Belgian jail to serve the remainder of his 20-year term for crimes against Bosniaks during the Bosnian war. Petkovic was convicted in 2017 of committing crimes against humanity, violations of the laws or customs of war, and grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions between 1992 and 1994. He was found guilty of participating in a joint criminal enterprise intended to remove Bosniaks from territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina in which the Bosnian Croat leadership, along with the leadership of Croatia, wanted to establish Croat domination.

23 September 2020: According to CNN, former Foreign Affairs Secretary of the Philipines, Albert del Rosario, announced that Justice Antonio Carpio, an expert on the law of the sea, will serve as lawyer in charging Xi Jimping for crimes against humanity for Beijing's illegal moves in the disputed waters. The filing said China's encroachment on islands in the South China Sea, including the Spratly Islands, resulted in "environmentally destructive and illegal reclamations and artificial island building activities" in Scarborough Shoal and the Kalayaan Islands and deprived Filipino fishermen from livelihood.  

22 September 2020: Former Bosnian Serb army fighter, Ranko Radulovic has been indicted for crimes against humanity against the Bosniak civilian population in and around the Foca area as a member of the Bosnian Serb Army during the war. According to the prosecution, Radulovic, who has citizenship of Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, was charged with persecuting the Bosniak civilian population during July and August 1992, acting jointly with others and participating, as part of this prosecution, in an attack on civilians and villages that resulted in the deaths of victims.

21 September 2020: Eric Danboy Bagale, a former presidential guard from the Central African Republic was arrested in eastern France on Tuesday and taken to Paris. He is accused of leading a group of largely Christian militias which carried out revenge killings after the CAR's president was ousted in 2013. Mr Bagale has been indicted for war crimes and crimes against humanity, both for his actions as head of former President François Bozizé's guard and later as head of the mostly Christian anti-Balaka militias, according to the AFP news agency.

18 September 2020: In their published findings, the Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Venezuela cited evidence of unlawful executions, enforced disappearances, arbitrary detentions and torture in the country since 2014. Senior military and ministerial figures were likely aware of the crimes, said the investigators, who were appointed by the Human Rights Council in Geneva in September last year. These crimes were “part of a widespread and systematic course of conduct, thus amounting to crimes against humanity”, the authors maintained, in a call for further action by the International Criminal Court, along with justice and reparations for the victims and their families.

17 September 2020:  In a report published by a United Nations-backed fact-finding mission, it has been found that there are reasonable grounds to believe that Venezuelan authorities and security forces have since 2014 planned and executed serious human rights violations, some of which include arbitrary killings and the systematic use of torture and amount to crimes against humanity. Marta Valiñas, chairperson of the UN mission stated that this finding was as a result of investigating 223 cases of alleged extrajudicial executions, enforced disappearances, arbitrary detentions and torture, and reviewing an additional 2,891 to corroborate patterns of violations and crimes. 

16 September 2020: A United Nations report has pointed to signs that Syria's government still continues to commit crimes against humanity including rape, torture, and murder as the country's nine-year war grinds on. The team also cited possible war crimes by a Turkey-backed coalition of rebel groups and called on Ankara to do more to help prevent them. This is the 21st report from the Commission of Inquiry on Syria, and was based on 538 interviews as well as documents, satellite imagery, and other evidence. 

15 September 2020: The United Nations human rights chief, Michelle Bachelet, said on Monday that recent civilian casualties in Myanmar may amount to “further war crimes” and that three years after an exodus of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar, no concrete measures on accountability had been taken. Bachelet said that civilian casualties from fighting in Rakhine and neighbouring Chin states had been increasing, including through disappearances and extra-judicial killings. She added that satellite images and eyewitness accounts indicated that areas of northern Rakhine had been burnt in recent months and called for an independent investigation.

14 September 2020: The Vaud Provincial Prosecutor’s Office has written to the Deputy Attorney General of the Swiss Confederation in Bern, stating that he has set aside the previous decision of the Prosecutor’s Office to close the case of the assassination of Dr. Kazem Rajavi. He added that the case had been transferred to the Attorney General’s Office to be revisited in the context of genocide and crimes against humanity. Dr. Kazem Rajavi was assassinated on April 24, 1990, by terrorists alleged to have been dispatched by the Iranian regime. 

11 September 2020: Human Rights Watch has published a 42-page report, “‘Video Unavailable’: Social Media Platforms Remove Evidence of War Crimes,” stating that social media platforms are taking down online content they consider terrorist, violently extremist, or hateful in a way that prevents its potential use to investigate serious crimes, including war crimes. The report urged all stakeholders, including social media platforms, to come together to develop an independent mechanism to preserve potential evidence of serious crimes. The human rights organisation added that the content should be available to support national and international investigations, as well as research by nongovernmental organizations, journalists, and academics.

10 September 2020: In a UN report, member of the Group of Eminent International and Regional Experts on Yemen (GEE), led by Melissa Parke have, for the third year running since the Human Rights Council set the experts to work, found “reasonable grounds to believe that the parties to the conflict have committed and continue to commit serious violations of international human rights and international humanitarian law. Some of these crimes, the report added, may amount to war crimes.” 

9 September 2020: U.N. investigators have said in a report that weapons provided by Western powers and Iran to the warring sides in Yemen are fuelling the six-year-old conflict, marked by deadly Saudi-led coalition air strikes and Houthi shelling. The report stated that Coalition air strikes in the past year may amount to war crimes, while the Iran-aligned Houthi movement carried out killings and other abuses that may also constitute war crimes. Countries including Britain, Canada, France, Iran and the United States continued their support to the warring sides “including through arms transfers, thereby helping to perpetuate the conflict”, the U.N. panel said in the report entitled “Yemen: A Pandemic of Impunity in a Tortured Land”.

8 September 2020: The murder of six Jesuit priests, their housekeeper and her 15-year-old daughter in El Salvador in 1989 put a focus on the country's 12-year civil war and outraged human rights activists all over the world. Now, two American women, a Stanford University professor and a national security analyst hope that their testimony in a Spanish court will bring justice 31 years later. After the Salvadoran government passed an amnesty law in 1993 that made it difficult to investigate and prosecute human rights cases, Spain applied the legal principle of universal jurisdiction to take up the Jesuits' case because five of the slain priests were Spanish citizens. According to international law, unresolved war crimes or crimes against humanity can be tried by other countries, even when they happen outside their borders.

7 September 2020: The Prosecutor of the Special Department for War Crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina has issued an Indictment against Ranko Radulovic, who has citizenship of Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, with committing crimes against humanity against the Bosniak civilian population in and around the Foca area as a member of the Bosnian Serb Army during the war. The Prosecutor’s Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina will be corroborating the allegations in the Indictment by summonsing around fifty (50) witnesses, including seven (7) witnesses with assigned protection measures, as well as by enclosing around two hundred (200) pieces of material evidence. The Indictment has been forwarded to the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina for confirmation.

4 September 2020: Prominent British human rights lawyer barrister Geoffrey Nice, who previously led the prosecution of ex-Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic over the Balkans war and worked with the International Criminal Court, is convening an independent tribunal in London. The tribunal aims to investigate whether the Chinese government’s alleged rights abuses against Uighur Muslims in the far western Xinjiang region constitute genocide or crimes against humanity

3 September 2020: Canada and the Netherlands will formally join the Gambia's legal bid to hold Myanmar accountable over allegations of genocide against its mostly-Muslim Rohingya minority in a move described by observers as historic. In a joint statement on Wednesday, Canadian Foreign Minister Francois-Philippe Champagne and his Dutch counterpart Stef Blok said the two nations were intervening in the case before the International Court of Justice in order "to prevent the crime of genocide and hold those responsible to account".

2 September 2020: The Khmer Rouge’s chief jailer, who admitted overseeing the torture and killings of as many as 16,000 Cambodians while running the regime’s most notorious prison, has died. Kaing Guek Eav, also known as Duch, was 77 and had been serving a life prison term for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Duch was sentenced to life imprisonment in 2010 for atrocities he had committed as a commandant of the Tuol Sleng prison. At least 14,000 people died after being held there, most of them sent to a killing field after being tortured and forced to confess to often imaginary crimes. Only a handful survived.

1 September 2020: Sudan’s power-sharing government signed a peace agreement with key rebel groups on Monday, a step towards resolving deep-rooted conflicts from the long rule of ousted leader Omar al-Bashir, who is charged with crimes against humanity by the ICC. Three major groups signed the deal, including factions from Darfur where more than 300,000 people are estimated to have been killed and 2.5 million displaced since 2003, and one from southern regions which say they were also marginalised. The deal offers rebels political representation and devolved powers, integration into the security forces, economic and land rights and the chance of return for displaced people.

31 August 2020: Félicien Kabuga, a key suspect accused of playing a leading role in the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda, is likely to be transferred to the UN tribunal in Arusha, Tanzania before the end of the year, said Serge Brammertz, the IRMCT chief prosecutor. He had been  indicted by the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (a predecessor to IRMCT) in 1997 on seven counts; genocide, complicity in genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, attempt to commit genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide, persecution and extermination. 

28 August 2020: A 45-year-old was detained by officers from the Metropolitan Police on suspicion of war crimes, contrary to section 51 of the International Criminal Court Act 2001. Police said the arrest followed an allegation of offences relating to the first and second civil wars in the African nation, between 1989 and 2003. Officers are searching an address in southeast London and enquiries are ongoing. Up to a quarter of a million people were killed in the Liberian civil wars, while thousands more were mutilated and raped.

27 August 2020: Rwanda has issued an international arrest warrant for former Rwandan spy chief, Aloys Ntiwiragabo, who is under investigation in France over his role in the African country's 1994 genocide. France opened a probe into alleged crimes against humanity by the ex-military official after he was found in the suburbs of the city of Orleans, about 100km southwest of Paris. French investigative news site Mediapart tracked down Ntiwiragabo, who had been identified by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) as one of the architects of the genocide.

26 August 2020: Colombia has requested the extradition of a notorious paramilitary warlord jailed in the US on drug charges, amid fears that he may be deported to Italy and escape justice for human rights crimes, allegedly amounting to crimes against humanity in the Andean nation. Salvatore Mancuso, 56, led a rightwing paramilitary group which carried out some of the worst violence against civilians during Colombia’s decades-long civil war. Colombian President Iván Duque this month called for Mancuso’s return, saying his “his crimes will not continue to be met with impunity.

25 August 2020: Former Bosnian-Serb commander, Ratko Mladic returned to the United Nations court in The Hague on Tuesday to appeal his 2017 conviction for genocide and crimes against humanity during the Yugoslav Wars. The appeal was originally scheduled to begin in March but was postponed because of Mladic's health. Later it was postponed because of the coronavirus pandemic. Originally convicted on 10 counts, prosecutors say he should also be found guilty of genocide against Bosniaks and Croats in 1992.

24 August 2020: Abdalla Hamdok, Sudan's Prime Minister, has announced that the country is ready to cooperate with the International Criminal Court so those accused of war crimes in Darfur appear before the tribunal, a list that includes deposed President Omar al-Bashir. Al-Bashir, who has been in jail in Khartoum since he was toppled after mass protests last year, is wanted by the ICC for alleged war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity in Darfur in a conflict that killed an estimated 300,000 people beginning in 2003.

21 August 2020: The Court of Appeal in the Romanian city of Constanta said that it has refused to extradite Zoran Stojcic to Bosnia and Herzegovina, where he is accused of committing a war crime by beating a Croat prisoner in 1992. The Romanian judges justified rejecting the Bosnian Justice Ministry’s extradition request by saying that there are not enough guarantees that Stojcic will not face capital punishment in Bosnia’s Serb-dominated Republika Srpska entity if he extradited and convicted.

20 August 2020: Party-list group Bayan Muna wants the International Criminal Court to file criminal complaints against President Rodrigo Duterte for the recent spate of activist killings. Activist groups have blamed the administration for the two recent killings, but presidential spokesperson Harry Roque maintained that the administration was against any form of violence against citizens, including activists criticizing the government. In December 2019, the ICC said that the investigation and assessment of the complaints against Duterte, which included crimes against humanity under the controversial war against illegal drugs, would continue despite the country’s withdrawal from the Rome Statute the international agreement that created the ICC. 

19 August 2020: Remains of over 100 victims of the genocide have so far been exhumed from a backyard of a home belonging to a man convicted for genocide against the Tutsi. François Simbizi in Mpano village, Cyivugiza cell of Nyamirambo sector in Nyarugenge District is said to have set up a roadblock near his house where Interahamwe militia converged daily to kill every passerby found to be a Tutsi fleeing their homes. More remains are suspected to still be in the compound. Simbizi died in prison years after he was convicted for genocide.

18 August 2020: Last Tuesday on World Minorities Day, Pakistan urged the international community to act to stop the "ethnic cleansing" of Kashmiris, which he termed as genocide. Shehryar Khan Afridi, the chairman of parliament's Kashmir Committee accused New Delhi of unleashing a "reign of terror" against Indian minorities, particularly Muslims. Afridi called for an immediate end to atrocities being meted out to minorities in general and "Kashmiris in particular."

17 August 2020: The Metropolitan Police have opened an investigation into war crimes allegedly committed by British mercenaries in Sri Lanka during the 1980s. The probe follows the publication earlier this year of Keenie Meenie: the British Mercenaries Who Got Away with War Crimes, by former Morning Star journalist Phil Miller. Mr Miller exposed how British military veterans from a company called Keenie Meenie Services (KMS) evaded accountability for their part in war crimes against Tamil civilians at the start of Sri Lanka’s civil war.

14 August 2020: The Bosnian state prosecution filed an indictment on Wednesday charging Predrag Bastah with crimes against humanity for his alleged participation in the murders of 37 Bosniak civilians at Mracni Dol in the Vlasenica municipality. Bastah was sentenced to 22 years in prison in 2011 for his involvement in the murders of civilians, unlawful detention, forcible disappearances and resettlement of the local population in the Vlasenica area. The new indictment has been filed to the state court for confirmation.

13 August 2020: Namibia’s President Hage Geingob on Tuesday said reparations offered by Germany for mass killings in its then colony at the start of the twentieth century were “not acceptable” and needed to be “revised.” German occupiers in Namibia killed tens of thousands of indigenous Herero and Nama people in 1904-1908 massacres, which historians have called the first genocide of the 20th century. Namibia was called German South West Africa during Germany’s 1884-1915 rule, and then passed under South African rule for 75 years, finally gaining independence in 1990.

12 August 2020: The Supreme Court Chamber of the UN-backed Khmer Rouge Tribunal on Monday terminated the case against former senior cadre Ao An after thirteen years of investigation into charges of crimes against humanity. Ao An, known as “Ta An”, was a former Khmer Rouge deputy secretary of the Democratic Kampuchea regime’s Central Zone and Sector 41 secretary. He was charged in 2015 with premeditated homicide and crimes against humanity. In 2016, he was charged with additional crimes, including genocide

11 August 2020: The Appellate Division Panel of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina has delivered its appeals judgment finding the accused Ivan Kraljević, Vice Bebek and Stojan Odak guilty of war crimes against civilians. The Appellate Panel ultimately sentenced them as follows: the accused Ivan Kraljević to one year and three months of imprisonment; the accused Stojan Odak to two years and six months of imprisonment; and the accused Vice Bebek to one year of imprisonment. The accused Ivan Kraljević, Stojan Odak and Vice Bebek were found guilty that between April 1993 and March 1994, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the armed conflict between the Croat Defense Council (HVO) and the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as members of the HVO Military Police. 

10 August 2020: Lebanese protesters enraged by official negligence blamed for the enormous explosion in the capital Beirut have vowed to rally again after a night of demonstrations that saw protesters storm several ministries. The death toll from the explosion stood at 158 people, with 60 still reported missing, and a staggering 6,000 wounded, many by flying glass as the shockwave tore through the city. The head of Lebanon's Maronite church, Patriarch Bechara Boutros al-Rai, joined the chorus of people pressing Diab's entire cabinet to step down over a blast he said could be "described as a crime against humanity". 

7 August 2020: In a statement issued in Monrovia on August 5, 2020, nine human rights groups in Liberia have expressed fear that they are receiving threats from some ranking security officers of the Liberian Government. The groups, which include CIVITAS MAXIMA, in a collective tone, noted that “Credible threats” have been made against a staff of the Global Justice and Research project (GJRP), Hassan Bility, as well as witnesses of alleged crimes by a recent defendant of a war crimes unit in the United Kingdom. The human rights organisations added that Adama Dempster, Secretary-General of the Civil Society Human Rights Advocacy Platform of Liberia, also received threats in connection to his human rights work and advocacy for a war crimes court.

6 August 2020: Croatian President Zoran Milanovic has presented an award to a Bosnian Croat war crimes suspect despite mounting criticism, decorating a wartime Croat police unit for their "contribution to the liberation of Croatia". Zlatan Mijo Jelic, a retired general of the Croatian Defense Council (HVO), received the award at a ceremony in the Croatian city of Knin marking the 25th anniversary of the country's victory over rebel Serbs during the war in 1995. Bosnia's state prosecution indicted Jelic in 2016 over alleged war crimes against Bosniaks in the southern city of Mostar between 1993 and 1994. Jelic has refused to stand trial and denies the charges. He moved to Croatia in 2012 and renounced his Bosnian citizenship, according to Trial International, an NGO fighting impunity for international crimes.

5 August 2020: According to the United Nations, more than 1,300 people were killed in the first six months of the year by armed groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), three times more than in the same period in 2019. The report by the UN Joint Human Rights Office (UNJHRO) said fighters of all armed groups were responsible for the summary executions or arbitrary killings of at least 1,315 people, including 165 children, between January and June 2020.The UN has warned that some of the latest attacks could amount to crimes against humanity.

4 August 2020: According to the Lybia Observer, Khalifa Haftar, who is facing several lawsuits in the United States for war crimes and crimes against humanity, has hired New York law firm, Tucker Levin PLLC to represent him in the Eastern District Court of Virginia, according to a statement by the Libyan American Alliance (LAA). Faisal Gill, the lawyer retained to represent families of Haftar's victims in Libya said that after ignoring the courts for months, Haftar finally got the message that the people filing the lawsuits are serious about pursuing justice for the victims of his egregious and violent actions.

3 August 2020: Renewed attacks in the troubled Darfur region of Sudan by armed groups and government dispersals of protests have left dozens dead and thousands displaced. The southwestern region has witnessed a wave of violence that led to the death of at least 100 civilians in July, despite a short lull in the unrest after the 2019 Sudanese revolution that ousted longtime president Omar al-Bashir, who is in jail and wanted by the International Criminal Court on charges of overseeing crimes against humanity over his scorched-earth campaign against rebels in Darfur more than a decade ago.

31 July 2020: The state court of Bosnia has awarded two men acquitted of war crimes some 5,000 euros each for suffering non-material damage. Both Zijad Hamzic and Nusret Muhic were represented by lawyer Kenan Hadzimuhovic. According to Hadzimuhovic, in the first case, the first instance court awarded Hamzic 4,000 marks only, but following an appeal, they raised the amount to 10,000, about 5,000 euros while concerning the second case, the first instance court awarded him 17,000 marks but the second instance chamber upheld an appeal filed by the Office of the Attorney General  and reduced it to KM 10,000. 

30 July 2020: A report by the UN, based on 100 first-hand accounts by North Korean women, details allegations that they were beaten or suffered other individual or collective punishment while in detention between 2009 and 2019, which could amount to crimes against humanity. “These accounts show once again the systemic nature of human rights violations in the DPRK, and the need to keep seeking pathways to proper accountability for such crimes”, said Ms. Bachelet, the UN Human Rights Chief. Ms. Bachelet added that the UN Human Rights Office will continue to collect evidence of this kind to support a process of criminal accountability. The report concludes with recommendations calling for the Government to bring the detention system into line with international norms and standards.

29 July 2020: The Swiss-based organization, Civitas Maxima which has been working in collaboration with the Global Justice and Research Project (GJRP) to facilitate the documentation of international crimes, and pursues the redress of such crimes on behalf of victims who do not have access to justice, has taken Madam Agnes Reeves-Taylor to task over her damning indictment of the group’s effort in pursuit of alleged perpetrators of the Liberian civil war. Civitas said it is now more important than ever that the Liberian Government listens to calls from Liberians and the international community to establish a war crimes court. “Until then, Liberia will be the land of impunity, where war criminals can find safe haven. And this is the greatest disservice to all the people that have died and suffered, to those that were brave enough to testify, and to those who relentlessly advocate for justice and accountability.”

28 July 2020: An umbrella group of unions and social organizations representing more than 1 million Brazilian medical professionals have filed a complaint to the International Criminal Court in The Hague, Netherlands, accusing Bolsonaro of committing a crime against humanity by reacting to the outbreak with "contempt, neglect and denial." With more than 87,000 deaths and 2.4 million registered infections so far, Brazil has suffered more cases than any other country except the United States. The complaint also cites Bolsonaro's "adamant insistence" on the use of the anti-malarial medicines, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Multiple scientific studies show these are ineffective against COVID-19.

27 July 2020: France has opened an investigation into alleged crimes against humanity by a top former Rwandan military official, Aloys Ntiwiragabo, during the country's 1994 genocide that killed at least 800,000 people. French investigative news site Mediapart tracked down the former Rwandan spy chief, who was identified by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda as one of the architects of the genocide in Rwanda. Prosecutors opened investigations after Ntiwiragabo was found hiding in the suburbs of the city of Orleans, about 100km (62 miles) southwest of Paris.

24 July 2020: A former Liberal justice minister, Irwin Cotler, is urging Canada’s Parliament to become the first to define China’s “mass atrocities” against the country’s Uighur minority as genocide. The international human rights lawyer made the challenge to parliamentarians on Monday during his testimony before a House of Commons subcommittee studying the reports of abuses, including mass incarceration and forced sterilization, targeting Uighur Muslims and ethnic Kazakhs in northwestern China.

23 July 2020: A Malaysian court will hear a bid to set aside caning sentences handed down to 27 Rohingya refugees from Myanmar, lawyers said, a punishment that rights groups have decried as vicious and tantamount to torture. On Monday, rights group Amnesty International urged Malaysia not to cane the refugees, saying it was "cruel and inhumane". "The men who face violent lashings on top of jail terms have already fled persecution and crimes against humanity in Myanmar," Rachel Chhoa-Howard, Malaysia researcher at Amnesty, said in a statement.

21 July 2020: Prime Minister of Armenia, Nikol Pashinyan called Azerbaijan’s threat to bomb the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant, located outside Yerevan, to unequivocally be considered a crime against humanity. He asserted that such an action is a threat to commit terrorism against humanity and should be given an appropriate international probe and reaction. Pashinyan explained that the meeting was called to discuss the operative situation on the Armenia-Azerbaijan border and the military-political situation in the region that has become tense due to Azerbaijan’s aggression against the sovereign territory of the Republic of Armenia. 

20 July 2020: As confirmed by the duty prosecutor of the Herzegovina Neretva Canton Prosecutor’s Office, the body of Hague war crimes convict Zdravko Mucic Pava was found on Saturday at around 3 pm in Lake Jablanica in the settlement of Cerići near Konjic. The 65-years old Mucic from Konjic, whose disappearance was reported on Friday, had been released from custody by The Hague tribunal in 2003 following a decision on his early release after serving two-thirds of his sentence.

17 July 2020: The Panel of the Appellate Division of the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina handed down, on 16 July 2020, a second instance judgment in the case of SretkoPavić. The accused Sretko Pavić was found guilty of war crimes against the Civilian Population under Article 142(1) of the Criminal Code of the SFRY, as read with Article 22 of the same Code and sentenced to a term of eleven years by the Appellate Panel of the Court of BiH.

16 July 2020: An Israeli newspaper, Haaretz has reported that Israel is compiling a top secret list of military and intelligence officials who could be arrested abroad if the International Criminal Court in the Hague opens an investigation into alleged Israeli war crimes in the occupied Palestinian territories. The list is alledged to contain between 200 and 300 officials, some of whom are not aware of their inclusion. 

15 July 2020: Amnesty International has stated that the authorities in Sudan must promptly investigate the killing of nine protesters by an armed militia group affiliated with the Sudan security forces which occurred in Fata Borno, North Darfur, on 13 July. The people of Darfur have endured deadly attacks from armed militia and been caught in the middle of fights between armed militia and government forces. The violence has resulted in the deaths of more than 300,000, and the displacement of more than 2 million since 2003. The International Criminal Court  has issued arrest warrants for four Sudanese government officials including former President Omar Al Bashir for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide committed against the people of Darfur.

14 July 2020: The trial of a Malian fighter accused of demolishing Timbuktu's shrines has begun at the International Criminal Court in The Hague. Al Hassan Ag Abdoul Aziz Ag Mohamed Ag Mahmoud, 42, who was active in Timbuktu during 2012 and 2013, has been charged with war crimes, crimes against humanity, rape and sexual slavery. Al Hassan is the second Malian fighter to face trial at the ICC for the destruction of the Timbuktu shrines, following a landmark 2016 ruling at the world's only permanent war crimes court.

13 July 2020: Bosnian Muslims marked 25 years since the Srebrenica genocide, the worst atrocity on European soil since the end of the second world war, with the memorial ceremony sharply reduced due to the coronavirus pandemic. The event marked July 11, 1995, the day when Bosnian Serb forces marched into Srebrenica, a Muslim enclave on Serb territory in Bosnia and Herzegovina that had been under the UN protection.

10 July 2020: Lawyers representing two Uighur activist organizations have filed a complaint with the International Criminal Court accusing Chinese officials of genocide and other crimes against humanity against Uighur Muslim minority groups. The complaint will be the first legal proceeding challenging the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) ongoing brutal treatment of the Uighurs, which dates back to 1884. Notwithstanding evidence supporting these allegations, the ICC cannot exercise jurisdiction over China because China is not a party to the Rome Statute governing the ICC. However, international lawyer Rodney Dixon, who is currently leading the case, said in a recent JURIST interview that jurisdiction “should not be a barrier at all” because the unlawful acts occurred in two Rome Statute member states outside of China: Cambodia and Tajikistan.

9 July 2020: Amnesty International reports that it has collected new evidence showing that indiscriminate airstrikes by the Myanmar military have killed civilians, including children, amid worsening armed conflict in the country’s Rakhine and Chin States. Nicholas Bequelin, Amnesty International’s Asia-Pacific Regional Director said that while Myanmar authorities were urging people to stay at home in order to stop COVID-19, its military was burning down homes and killing civilians in indiscriminate attacks that amount to war crimes in Rakhine and Chin states. 

8 July 2020: A UN investigation has said that war crimes and possible crimes against humanity were committed during the battle for Syria's opposition-held Idlib province. The Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Syria said people endured "unfathomable suffering" during the campaign launched in late 2019 by pro-regime forces to retake the last remaining areas in the country held by armed groups. "Children were shelled at school, parents were shelled at the market, patients were shelled at the hospital, and entire families were bombarded even while fleeing," said commission chair Paulo Pinheiro. 

7 July 2020: In a report released on Monday, the UN's Joint Human Rights Office (UNJHRO) in the DRC documented a series of "widespread, systematic and extremely brutal" rights abuses by the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF). Intensified attacks by ADF, an armed group in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) over the past 18 months have killed at least 800 civilians, according to the United Nations, which said the assaults may amount to crimes against humanity and war crimes

6 July 2020: According to the New York Times, Uighur exiles have urged the International Criminal Cour to investigate Beijing for genocide and crimes against humanity, the first ever attempt to use international law to hold China’s ruling Communist Party accountable for its draconian crackdown on the Muslim minority. A team of London-based lawyers representing two Uighur activist groups has filed a complaint against Beijing for pursuing the repatriation of thousands of Uighurs through unlawful arrests in or deportation from Cambodia and Tajikistan. The case could bring greater international scrutiny of the Chinese state’s power to impose its will beyond its borders.

3 July 2020: Human Rights Watch argues that with the recent death of Burundi's President Pierre Nkurunziza, the country has a new opportunity to start afresh, however the repressive system Nkurunziza put in place remains firmly entrenched. Two newly appointed senior government officials, the prime minister and interior minister are on international sanctions lists for their alleged role in abuses since 2015. When the International Criminal Court in 2016 initiated a preliminary investigation into possible crimes against humanity in Burundi, the country became the first to ever leave the court. Presently, a United Nations Commission of Inquiry is the most important mechanism conducting in-depth investigations although Burundi won’t let its team into the country.

2 July 2020: A group of Palestinians from the occupied West Bank submitted a complaint on Tuesday to the International Criminal Court, requesting an investigation into senior Israeli and US officials who authorised Donald Trump's “Peace to Prosperity” plan. William Schabas, a professor of international law at the UK's Middlesex University, filed the complaint on behalf of his clients citing Israel's plans to unilaterally and illegally annex up to a third of the West Bank, a scheme that gained traction after Trump's plan was launched in January. In a statement, Schabas said “there is credible evidence” that Trump, Pompeo and Kushner “are complicit in acts that may amount to war crimes relating to the transfer of populations into occupied territory and the annexation of the sovereign territory of the State of Palestine”.

June

30 June 2020: Australia's special forces chief has admitted that SAS soldiers did commit war crimes in Afghanistan. Australian Special Operations Commander Major-General Adam Findlay told SAS soldiers at Perth's Campbell Barracks that, 'there are guys who criminally did something' and 'poor leadership' is to blame. This is the first time a senior officer, who is still serving has said that SAS soldiers broke the law in Afghanistan. His comments are widely interpreted as an admission that the Brereton Inquiry - an investigation into more than 55 cases of alleged misconduct by Australia's special forces - is going to make adverse findings when it finishes in July. 

29 June 2020: Last week convicted genocide criminal, Leon Mugesera, was back in court this time appealing the life sentence he was handed in 2016. The basis of the appeal, he says, is on account that the judge who presided over the case distorted the content of his infamous 1992 speech in Kabaya, Gisenyi, calling for the extermination of the Tutsi population in Rwanda. Mugesera spent seventeen years in Canadian courts challenging the Supreme Court’s ruling to have him deported to Rwanda to stand trial for genocide crimes and crimes against humanity.

26 June 2020: In a resolution adopted last week with 493 votes to 104 and 67 abstentions, the European Parliament strongly condemned the appalling death of George Floyd in the US, as well as similar killings elsewhere in the world. MEPs called on the US authorities to address structural racism and inequalities, criticised the police crackdowns on peaceful protesters and journalists and President Trump’s threat to deploy the army as well as his “inflammatory rhetoric”. Parliament also called on EU institutions and the member states to officially acknowledge past injustices and crimes against humanity committed against black people, people of colour and Roma, according to Parliament, which declares slavery a crime against humanity.

25 June 2020: Kosovo President Hashim Thaci has been accused of war crimes by a special international prosecutor in The Hague. Mr Thaci and others "are criminally responsible for nearly 100 murders", torture and enforced disappearances, the prosecutor said. Thaci was a former commander with the Kosovo Liberation Army during the war for independence from Serbia between 1998 and 1999. The accusations, covering Kosovo's independence war against Serbi, are being assessed by a judge at the Kosovo Specialist Chambers who will decide if the case goes to trial. Mr Thaci has denied any wrongdoing.

24 June 2020: The International Criminal Court has begun hearing an appeal by the UN tribunal's chief prosecutor against last year's acquittal of former Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo on charges of crimes against humanity. Fatou Bensouda said in her appeal submission that the court erred in clearing Gbagbo and his right-hand man Charles Ble Goude of allegations of post-electoral violence in the restive West African nation in 2010-2011, in which about 3,000 people died.

23 June 2020: Bill Horace, a Toronto man shot in London, Ontario, in the early hours of Sunday morning, died without facing justice for war crimes he allegedly committed nearly three decades ago during Liberia’s devastating civil wars. London Police Service say four men forced their way into a home in a quiet middle-class neighbourhood, where a struggle took place and Mr. Horace was shot. The assailants fled. Mr. Horace made it outside and reached at least one neighbour’s home to ask for help. In 2012, he was under investigation by Canada’s crimes against humanity and war crimes program, which involves the RCMP, the Department of Justice, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, and the Canada Border Services Agency. No charges were laid.

22 June 2020: German federal prosecutors arrested a Syrian doctor for suspected crimes against humanity and grievous bodily harm, they announced today. The case is an expansion of Germany's legal campaign against the alleged enforcers of Bashar Assad's tyrannical suppression of human rights. The man, identified only as Alaa M. in accordance with Germany's privacy laws, was a suspected member of the Syrian military intelligence agency. He allegedly worked in a regime prison and allegedly tortured a detainee on least two occasions. He allegedly left Syria in mid-2015 and traveled to Germany, where he had been working as a doctor. 

19 June 2020: The Palestinian Islamic Resistance Movement has condemned the German Bridge Prize Society for giving its 2020 Award to former Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni. The announcement was also condemned by Euro-Med Human Rights Monitor. The Society announced that the award would go to Livni for her role in spreading the culture of peace in the Middle East. Euro-Med expressed its “serious concern” about the decision of the Bridge Prize Society to award the 2020 prize to Livni. “She stands accused of alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the blockaded Gaza Strip during Operation Cast Lead in 2008/9 when she was Israel’s Foreign Minister. 

18 June 2020: The European Union on Tuesday stepped up its criticism of Donald Trump's decision to authorize sanctions against International Criminal Court officials for inquiry into possible war crimes , branding the move "unacceptable" and calling on the U.S. president to reverse course. "The European Union expresses grave concern about the announced measures and reconfirms its unwavering support for the International Criminal Court," EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell said in a statement. Trump last week signed an executive order authorizing the possible imposition of economic sanctions and visa restrictions on ICC employees involved in an investigation into whether American forces committed war crimes in Afghanistan.

17 June 2020: Libyan Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj has urged the UN to provide "technical assistance" in collecting and documenting evidence of war crimes committed by the militia affiliated with warlord Khalifa Haftar. Foreign Ministry spokesman Muhammad Al-Qiblawi in a statement on the ministry's social media account said al-Sarraj, in his message to the UN Support Mission in Libya, asked them to provide the necessary assistance to the country's authorities to investigate the crimes and violations committed in the south of the capital city of Tripoli and city of Tarhuna. After many civilian mass graves were found in Tarhuna, the Libyan government said Haftar’s militias should be investigated "on the grounds of planting explosives, mines in civilian areas, executions and torture" and called on to the international community to take action.

16 June 2020: A Sudanese militia leader has denied charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity over the Darfur conflict in his first appearance before the International Criminal Court (ICC) on Monday. Ali Kushayb was formally told of the more than 50 charges against him as he appeared by video link from a detention centre in The Hague because of coronavirus measures. Kushayb, 70, turned himself in earlier this month in the Central African Republic after 13 years on the run stemming from allegations relating to the devastating conflict in the western Sudanese region."Yes I was informed of the charges but this is untrue, they made me come here and I hope that I will get justice," said Kushayb. 

15 June 2020: According to The Guardian, US prosecutors have failed to include one of WikiLeaks’ most shocking video revelations in the indictment against Julian Assange, a move that has brought accusations that the US doesn’t want its “war crimes” exposed in public. Assange, an Australian citizen, is remanded and in ill health in London’s Belmarsh prison while the US tries to extradite him to face 18 charges, 17 under its Espionage Act for conspiracy to receive, obtain and disclose classified information.

12 June 2020: International investigators looking into charges of war crimes by Americans in Afghanistan will face economic penalties and travel restrictions, the Trump administration warned on Thursday, accusing the  Hague-based international court of corruption and maintaining that the United States can prosecute its own military and intelligence personnel. The sanctions come more than two years after the International Criminal Court announced an inquiry into allegations of crimes against humanity, including torture and rape by U.S. forces in Afghanistan and at C.I.A. interrogation facilities abroad.

11 June 2020: The trial of former Territorial Defence fighter Milan Trisic, accused of committing crimes against humanity in the village of Hranca and in the town of Bratunac in 1992, began at the Bosnian state court on Wednesday. Trisic is alleged to have participated in the persecution of Bosniak civilians from the village and of involvement in murders, detentions, forcible disappearances and torture. He was deported to Bosnia and Herzegovina from the US in October last year. While in the US, he was prosecuted for giving false data about his participation in the Bosnian war. 

10 June 2020: One of the most notorious Sudanese militia leaders in the brutal conflict in Darfur has been arrested in the Central African Republic and handed over to the International criminal court. Ali Kushayb, who had been on the run for 13 years, surrendered to authorities in a remote corner of northern CAR near the country’s border with Sudan, said a spokesman for the ICC. The charges against him consist of 22 counts of crimes against humanity, including murder and persecution, and 28 counts of war crimes, including intentionally attacking a civilian population, rape, and destruction of property.

9 June 2020: International Criminal Court Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda has told the ICC’s Pretrial Chamber that a war crimes probe against Israelis can proceed despite the continued application of the Oslo Accords. Israel and its allies have claimed that the Oslo Accords prevent the PA from seeking ICC involvement in a potential criminal issue. Bensouda’s decision on Monday was a rejection of Israel’s legal argument. The ICC chief prosecutor’s statement came in response to a May 27 request from the ICC Pretrial Chamber to clarify the status of the Oslo Accords and their impact on a war crimes probe against Israel.

8 June 2020: Ali Khan, Professor Emeritus of Washburn University School of Law in Topeka, Kansas, argues in JURIST that crimes against African Americans are crimes against humanity, and the U.S. is under a legal obligation to recognize African Americans as a persecuted population. Furthermore, state officials and private citizens committing crimes against African Americans must be charged with crimes against humanity. He argues that George Floyd’s death in Minnesota is not an isolated act of police brutality and that preceding deaths represent a pattern of crimes against African Americans. Khan contends that the domestic and global reaction underscores a simple fact that African Americans are a persecuted community whose human dignity is under widespread and systematic attack.

5 June 2020: Kosovo’s Supreme Court has ruled against court verdicts that found Serb fighter Milorad Zajic not guilty of committing war crimes against civilians and violating the Geneva Conventions. The Supreme Court ruled against the March 2019 verdict handed down by the Basic Court in Peja/Pec, and the October 2019 Court of Appeals verdict that cleared Zajic of what the court described as the “criminal act of organising groups to commit genocide, crimes against humanity and crimes of war”.

4 June 2020: Allegations of financial wrong-doing have cast a cloud over efforts to prosecute war crimes in Syria and in particular the first such case to be brought against henchmen of the Syrian regime. The European Union's Anti-Fraud Office (Olaf) recommended in March that the European Commission seek to recoup 1.9 million euros in funding from entities connected to the Syria Rule of Law project, an EU initiative that began around 2013. Authorities in the UK, the Netherlands and Belgium should “consider prosecuting the involved project partners for possible offences of fraud and forgery”, Olaf said in its investigation report.

3 June 2020: All but one of the thousands of complaints linking British soldiers to Iraq war crimes have been dropped, according to an independent investigator looking into the allegations in the United Kingdom. Andrew Cayley, director of the Service Prosecuting Authority, told BBC radio on Tuesday that it was "quite possible" that none of the original allegations would lead to a prosecution.British combat troops fought alongside US and other coalition forces in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent war that lasted eight years.

2 June 2020: United States Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo yesterday previewed imminent action by the Trump administration aimed at countering the International Criminal Court’s investigation of alleged war crimes committed by U.S. personnel in Afghanistan. In an interview on the “What the Hell Is Going On?” podcast, produced by the conservative-leaning American Enterprise Institute think tank, Pompeo said he is “very concerned” about the probe being conducted by the Hague-based tribunal. The warning from America’s top diplomat comes after ICC judges in March authorized an investigation into war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly perpetrated by Afghan government forces, the Taliban, American troops and U.S. foreign intelligence operatives. The inquiry marks the first time the court’s prosecutor had been allowed to scrutinize U.S. forces.

May

29 May 2020: The US House of Representatives has overwhelmingly approved legislation calling for sanctions on Chinese officials deemed responsible for the oppression of Uighur Muslims, sending the bill to the White House for President Donald Trump to veto or sign into law. The Uighur Human Rights Act passed by a 413-1 vote on Wednesday and came hours after Secretary of State Mike Pompeo notified Congress that the administration no longer considered Hong Kong autonomous from China. The bill calls for sanctions against those responsible for the repression of Uighurs and other Muslim groups in China's Xinjiang province, where the United Nations estimates that more than a million Muslims have been detained in camps. It singles out the region's Communist Party as responsible for alleged state-sponsored genocide against them.

28 May 2020: Widespread and systematic killings, beheadings, rape and other barbaric acts by militia mostly from the ethnic Lendu community in northeastern Congo may constitute crimes against humanity and war crimes, the United Nations said yesterday. In the six months to April 2020, at least 296 people were killed, 151 wounded and 38 raped, including women and children, mostly by fighters linked to the CODECO rebel group, said a report by the United Nations Joint Human Rights Office (UNJHRO). The recent attacks against civilians not only targeted the Hema and Alur communities, but included communities previously spared, UNJRHO report said. The raids intensified from March this year, particularly around artisanal mining sites.

27 May 2020: In a chilling new report, Amnesty International warns that Nigeria must urgently address its failure to protect and provide education to an entire generation of children in the Northeast, a region devastated by years of Boko Haram atrocities and gross violations by the military. The 91-page report, We dried our tears’: Addressing the toll on children of Northeast Nigeria’s conflict, examines how the military’s widespread unlawful detention and torture have compounded the suffering of children from Borno and Adamawa states who faced war crimes and crimes against humanity at the hands of Boko Haram. It also reveals how international donors have bankrolled a flawed programme that claims to reintegrate former alleged fighters, but which overwhelmingly amounts to unlawful detention of children and adults.

26 May 2020: It has been reported by a United Nations war crimes prosecutor, Serge Brammertz, that the remains of Augustin Bizimana, former Rwandan defence minister and one of the top suspects wanted over the country's 1994 genocide, have been identified in a grave in the Republic of Congo. Brammertz said Bizimana, who was indicted on 13 charges, including genocide, murder and rape, is believed to have died in Pointe Noire, in Congo, in 2000. The announcement of Bizimana's death follows the arrest in Paris last week of 84-year-old Felicien Kabuga, another of a handful of prominent suspects from the Rwandan genocide who had been on the run for more than 20 years.

25 May 2020: EU-backed "Genocide Network" has reported that Islamic State (IS) fighters who returned to Europe from conflicts in Iraq and Syria should be charged with war crimes along with terrorism. According to the network, many so-called returning foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs) affiliated with IS only face charges under domestic terrorism laws in their EU home countries, which come with a statute of limitations that sets a time limit to prosecution. However, core international crimes, like genocide, crimes against humanity or war crimes, can be prosecuted without a statute of limitations and be added to domestic terrorism charges. Culminating charges can lead to stiffer sentencing, the report said. 

20 May 2020: According to a UN investigation, efforts to gather evidence for the prosecution of Daesh militants are proving to be fruitful and “significant progress” is being made in building a legal case against the terrorist group which controlled large swathes of territory in Iraq and Syria beginning in 2014. Details of the progress by the investigative team were included in a report to the UN Security Council which was obtained by the Associated Press. The investigative team is reportedly continuing to engage with the Iraqi government on pending legislation that would allow the country to prosecute war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide allegedly committed by the Daesh terrorist group. 

19 May 2020: The International Criminal Court ruled on Monday that ex-Congolese vice president and militia leader Jean-Pierre Bemba is not entitled to damages after his successful appeal of a war crimes conviction. Bemba’s lawyers failed to convince the court that their client must be compensated for the nearly $75 million they claimed he lost because of his imprisonment, including legal fees and what they say was the court’s mismanagement of his seized assets. The judges acknowledged that the 10 years Bemba spent in jail awaiting trial is a “significant amount of time to spend in custody, likely to result in personal suffering.” But they also ruled that Bemba “failed to establish that he had suffered a grave and manifest miscarriage of justice.”  

18 May 2020: Félicien Kabuga, alleged to be a leading figure in the 1994 Rwanda genocide, was apprehended in Paris by French authorities as a result of a joint investigation with the UN’s International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals (IRMCT). He was indicted by the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in 1997 on seven counts of genocide and crimes against humanity. UN secretary General, António Guterres said in a statement, "Mr. Kabuga’s apprehension sends a powerful message that those who are alleged to have committed such crimes cannot evade justice and will eventually be held accountable, even more than a quarter of a century later."

15 May 2020: The International Criminal Court has responded to Israeli criticisms over the prosecutor’s decision to probe Israeli war crimes allegedly committed in the occupied West Bank, besieged Gaza and occupied East Jerusalem. ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda was quoted on the court’s official Twitter account as saying that “misinformation and smear campaigns do not change facts about the conduct of my Office’s work concerning the situation in Palestine.” 

14 May 2020: Myanmar's military has conceded its troops abused prisoners in Rakhine state after a video of soldiers battering blindfolded detainees spread on social media, a rare admission of wrongdoing by a force often accused of acting with impunity, including committing war crimes and crimes against humanity. The video, which emerged on Sunday, shows plain-clothed men punching and kicking the heads of handcuffed and blindfolded detainees. Myanmar's armed forces are locked in an increasingly brutal war with the rebels, who are fighting for more autonomy for ethnic Rakhine Buddhists. 

13 May 2020: According to Human Rights Watch, the attack carried out yesterday by unidentified assailants on a hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan shows blatant disregard for civilian life and is an apparent war crime. A suicide bombing attack and ensuing gun battles killed at least 13 civilians, including 2 infants, and wounded at least 15. More than 80 patients, including children, were evacuated from the hospital. No armed group claimed responsibility for the attack on the hospital, whose maternity clinic is supported by the international aid organization Médecins San Frontières (Doctors Without Borders). The Taliban have denied involvement. The Dasht-e Barchi neighborhood in Kabul, where the hospital is located, is predominantly Shia and has been the location of a number of attacks by the Islamic State of Khorasan Province, a group affiliated with the Islamic State.

12 May 2020: The Bosnian state court told BIRN that Marinko Sunjic, who was accused of detaining, persecuting and committing grave abuses against Bosniak civilian prisoners in Mostar in 1992-93, has died and the proceedings against him have been discontinued. Sunjic had been standing trial for crimes against humanity together with Jure Kordic, Drazen Lovric, Dario Susac, Nedzad Tinjak, Nuhan Sikalo, Dario Mihalj, Stanko Skobic, Tomislav Ancic and Slavko Golemac. All the defendants were former members of the Second Brigade’s First Battalion and the Convicts’ Battalion of the Croatian Defence Council.

11 May 2020: Former prime minister of Ivory Coast, Guillaume Soro, a rebel leader before he joined politics, is facing a lawsuit in France for war crimes, murder and torture. Soro was handed a 20-year jail term in Ivory Coast last month for embezzlement, money laundering and buying a mansion in the West African country’s economic capital Abidjan with public funds. According to the plaintiffs, the case is being filed in France because Soro has been living in the country since 2019. He is being accused of ordering the kidnapping of former rebel leader Ibrahima Coulibaly on April 27,2011 and his subsequent torture and assassination.

8 May 2020: Australia’s most decorated Afghan veteran, Ben Roberts-Smith, has been referred by the federal police to the Commonwealth Director of Public Prosecutions to face possible charges for alleged war crimes. It is reported that a brief of evidence has been submitted by federal agents to prosecutors outlining allegations that Mr Roberts-Smith kicked a defenceless prisoner off a cliff and covered up his subsequent murder during a special forces mission in Afghanistan in September 2012. Multiple special forces sources have also confirmed that more of Mr Roberts-Smith’s fellow SAS soldiers have come forward to allege he was involved in other serious war crimes during his various tours of Afghanistan.

7 May 2020: The International Criminal Court’s prosecutor has said her office is working on new arrest warrants in Libya, pointing out that military commanders may be held responsible for crimes committed by their forces, namely the targeting of civilians with air strikes and artillery fire. Fatou Bensouda told the UN Security Council that Libya remains a priority for her office. She noted the offensive launched over a year ago by eastern-based forces under military commander Khalifa Haftar trying to take the capital, Tripoli, has not abated. She said her office is monitoring events, particularly civilian casualties from air strikes and shelling and incidents that may constitute war crimes under the Rome Statute that established the ICC.

6 May 2020: The UN’s special rapporteur on the promotion of truth, justice, reparation and guarantees of non-recurrence, Fabian Salvioli, has said that measures to protect against COVID-19 in overcrowded jails should not lead to amnesties or pardons being granted to people convicted of serious violations of human rights, crimes against humanity, genocide or war crimes. While countries have a duty to avoid overcrowding and ensure adequate sanitation and hygiene in detention facilities amid the pandemic, people convicted of offences like war crimes are usually kept away from mass contact for security reasons, Salvioli noted. If there is a persistent problem of overcrowding amid the ongoing health emergency, they should be relocated to other prisons, or put under temporary house arrest, he added. 

1 May 2020: A federal judge says there are reasonable grounds to believe a Quebec resident was complicit in crimes against humanity in the former Yugoslavia. Federal Court Justice Paul Crampton sided with Ottawa in its case against Cedo Kljajic, saying a civilized society cannot turn its back on the victims of distant crimes. The government alleged Kljajic fraudulently obtained Canadian citizenship by concealing his role in the creation and operation of a police force that carried out abuses on behalf of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb Republic in the early 1990s. In his ruling, Crampton concluded Kljajic became a permanent resident and later a citizen through false representation, fraud or knowingly concealing relevant circumstances.

April

30 April 2020: Colombia will offer individuals who leave crime gangs and rebel dissident groups legal benefits including reduced sentences in an effort to weaken illegal armed groups, Miguel Ceballos, the country's high peace commissioner said yesterday. Those who voluntarily surrender will get legal benefits like reductions in jail sentences and access to an up to six-year reintegration process that includes economic support. There will however not be pardons or amnesties for those responsible for war crimes or crimes against humanity like the use of landmines, Ceballos said. 

29 April 2020: The United Nations Special Rapporteur on human rights in Myanmar is calling for an immediate investigation into the military, following allegations of continuing war crimes and crimes against humanity in western Rakhine and Chin States despite the International Court of Justice's provisional measures and its own Presidential directive to respect the Genocide Convention. Yanghee Lee accused Myanmar's army, also known as the Tatmadaw, of ignoring a call for a ceasefire by rebel groups, and instead carrying out an armed offensive "inflicting immense suffering on the ethnic communities" in the two western states. Lee added that the focus of all authorities, including security forces, should be on dealing with the COVID-19 crisis, but instead, aid workers have also been singled out in the conflict. 

28 April 2020: According to Al Jazeera, Frederik Willem (FW) de Klerk, former President of South Africa, publicly stated that apartheid was not a crime against humanity in an interview with the national broadcaster, the SABC during the country's Freedom Day celebrations. During the interview, de Klerk said he was "not fully agreeing" with the presenter who asked him to confirm that apartheid - the legalised segregation of and discrimination against non-white people, was a crime against humanity. Although de Klerk later retracted his statement, the debacle opened old wounds and raised questions about his legacy. 

24 April 2020: A Chilean Court of Appeal, in a move to hault the rapid spread of coronavirus, released some prisoners from overcrowded prisons. Among those who were granted release and sentence reductions were 17 State actors convicted of crimes against humanity perpetrated against thousands of Chilean citizens during the Pinochet dictatorship, provoking condemnation by survivors and the international human rights community. With the decision by the Court, Chile is also not in compliance with international treaties and the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The cases of Almonacid, Arellano and others v. Chile, and La Cantuta v. Perú have established unequivocally the obligation of member states to investigate and prosecute all crimes against humanity, treating them as the most serious violations of human rights. 

23 April 2020: This week, German prosecutors charged Syria's Anwar Raslan and Eyad al-Gharib under the principle of universal jurisdiction, which allows them to bring cases involving war crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide even when the actions occurred outside the country and were perpetrated by or against non-nationals. As expounded in The New Humanitarian, most countries recognise the concept, though Germany and Norway are the two European nations that interpret it most broadly. Countries such as France, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Spain have adopted less sweeping versions. For now, universal jurisdiction is one of the only judicial tools available to prosecutors because Syria isn’t a party to the Rome Statute, which governs the International Criminal Court, and Russia has vetoed all UN Security Council attempts to refer Syrian-related matters to the ICC.

22 April 2020: A human rights NGO in Zagreb said in its annual report published last Friday that “as in previous years, war crimes prosecutions were stagnant” in Croatia in 2019, while hate speech and intolerance toward minorities persisted in the public arena and on social media. Instead of improving regional co-operation with the judiciary of the countries where war crimes indictees lived, the number of trials in absentia increased. Croatia continues to prosecute a small number of suspected members of it's military and police units and there is extremely poor cooperation between the relevant authorities of Croatia and Serbia, the report said. 

21 April 2020: Following the ongoing conflict in Libya, the UN Mission in Libya has warned of possible war crimes, detailing a "dramatic increase" of indiscriminate shelling on densely populated civilian areas in the capital, Tripoli, that killed five civilians and wounded 28 over the past few days. Eastern-based forces under the command of Khalifa Haftar have been laying siege to Tripoli since last April, trying to wrest the city from the UN-backed government. The UN also expressed concern about the fate of civilians in Tarhuna following the GNA’s military offensive. Without naming Western-based forces, it lamented arbitrary arrests, abuse of civilians and fighters and electricity and gas supply cut-offs, which it said amounted to "collective punishment" in the strategic city. 

20 April 2020: Germany has taken in more than a million asylum seekers, many fleeing war in Syria and Iraq and as a result, it sometimes becomes a surreal arena where victims run into their erstwhile torturers in the streets. Anwar al-Bunni and Anwar Raslan arrived in Berlin within two months of each other, and crossed paths when they were briefly staying in the same centre for asylum seekers. In the first legal proceedings worldwide over state-sponsored torture in Syria, Raslan will be tried under the principle of universal jurisdiction, which allows a foreign country to prosecute crimes against humanity. This week, the two men will face each other in a German court, where Raslan will be one of two alleged former Syrian intelligence officers in the dock accused of crimes against humanity for Bashar al-Assad's regime. 

17 April 2020: According to Human Rights Watch, the United Nations Secretary-General, Antonio Guterres has been reluctant to identify perpetrators of war crimes against children. Among several instances mentioned, is a summary he published on 6 April about an investigation into seven attacks on civilian facilities in Syria that found it “highly probable that the Government of Syria and/or its allies” bombed a school in Qalaat al-Madiq in April 2019, but lacked enough evidence “to reach a conclusive finding.” This is despite the fact that last December, the New York Times used flight logs, witness statements, and cockpit recordings to pin the attack on a Russian warplane. The UN secretariat isn’t the only UN body seemingly reluctant to name names of abusers. On April 8, the Security Council’s working group on children and armed conflict published a statement that rightly condemned Yemen’s Houthis for abuses but declined to mention Saudi Arabia or the UAE at all. 

16 April 2020: Rio state Governor Wilson Witzel said that he had contracted the coronavirus and criticised president Bolsonaro's defiance of guidelines from the United Nations and World Health Organization, adding that it could be considered a "crime against humanity". Bolsonaro has attacked social isolation measures and state governors who introduced them, ignoring the advice of his own health minister, Luiz Mandetta, to mingle with supporters, arguing they wreck Brazil's economy. There are more than 25,000 confirmed cases in Brazil but a study published by a number of Brazilian universities and institutes suggests that the country is likely to have 12 times more cases of coronavirus than the number being reported by the government. It estimated that only 8% of cases are being officially reported. 

15 April 2020: A new lawsuit has been filed with the International Criminal Court, arguing that coronavirus is a bioweapon. The theory has already been debunked in the past by a paper published on the New England Journal of Medicine, but the argument is still consistently put forward. The lawsuit, filed by Freedom Watch Founder Larry Klayman partly reads, "with respect to China’s handling of the Wuhan Coronavirus by suppressing medical reporting, there is sufficient evidence that the Communist Party of China is guilty of crimes against humanity." 

14 April 2020: Civictas Maxima, the Swiss-based group, responsible for bringing some of the major players of Liberia’s long-running civil war to face justice for their crimes says victims of war crimes can take solace that while Mr. Jucontee Thomas Woewiyou died on Monday from the deadly Coronavirus, he will forever be linked to his role during the first Liberian civil war, thanks to his conviction last year. In a statement, Alain Werner, Director of Civitas Maxima said that although he will never be sentenced, he was convicted of criminal offenses directly linked to his role during the first Liberian civil war, and this will never be taken away from the many victims of the NPFL’s vicious crimes. Woewiyu had faced trial in June 2018 in Philadelphia, U.S, and in July 2018 was convicted by a jury who found him guilty of 11 counts of immigration fraud and perjury for lying to the U.S immigration authorities about his role in a rebel movement during the First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996).

10 April 2020: Iran Security Chief is accusing the US of 'crimes against humanity' for blocking a loan from the IMF. President Donald Trump’s administration is planning to block Iran’s request for a $5 billion emergency loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to fund its fight against the coronavirus. US officials believe the money would not actually go towards the country's public health crisis. Iran, which has been the worst hit of all the countries in the Middle East by the coronavirus outbreak, requested the emergency loan last month.  

9 April 2020: Bosnian war victims’ representatives have welcomed decisions by Carmel Agius, president of the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals in The Hague, to reject requests for early release filed by war crimes convicts because he thinks they have not demonstrated rehabilitation. In one decision, where he rejected a request from wartime Croatian Defence Council fighter Miroslav Bralo, who asked to be released early from a Swedish prison, he justified the decision by saying, “I generally do not consider it appropriate to enable convicted persons to return to the affected regions before they have served their full sentence, without having demonstrated a certain degree of rehabilitation, including that their release will not endanger peace and security in the envisaged place of residence.”  

8 April 2020: According to the Human Rights Watch, the Afghan government should bring appropriate war crimes charges against Aslam Farooqi, leader of the Islamic State of Khorasan Province (ISKP), an affiliate of the Islamic State (ISIS), for his alleged role in directing attacks against civilians in Afghanistan. On April 4, 2020, Afghanistan’s intelligence agency, the National Directorate of Security, announced that they had arrested Farooqi, in Kandahar province. Farooqi had replaced the group’s former leader, known as Abu Omar Khorasani, in July 2019, after the group suffered setbacks under pressure from military operations by the United States, the Afghan government, and the Taliban. 

7 April 2020: Hissène Habré, the former president of Chad who was found guilty of crimes against humanity and convicted in 2015, has been temporarily set free from his prison cell in Senegal. His legal team had requested his release, arguing that the risk of him being infected with the coronavirus was high in jail. The Senegalese authorities granted him a 60-day release on humanitarian grounds, but he will be kept under house arrest during those two months.

6 April 2020: The state court in Sarajevo has asked Interpol to call for the arrests of Dusan Cimes, Slobodan Curcic and Goran Mojovic, who are all wanted to face war crimes charges but are currently living abroad. Cimes is accused of participating in a widespread and systematic attack by the Bosnian Serb Army and police against the Bosniak civilian population. Curcic, a former Bosnian Serb Army soldier who now lives in Montenegro, is accused of killing two Bosniak civilians during an attack on the village of Hum in the Foca municipality in 1992. Mojovic is accused of committing crimes against humanity related to the destruction of cultural, religious and historical monuments. 

3 April 2020: Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks founder, held in Belmarsh prison in London and facing extradition to the US for exposing war crimes, is alleged to have a chronic lung condition. His lawyers argued that he should be released because he was highly vulnerable to the coronavirus, however he was denied bail. Judge Vanessa Baraitser rejected the arguments, stating that Assange’s past conduct showed how far he was prepared to go to avoid extradition proceedings and there were substantial grounds to believe that if released he would abscond again. She added that “As matters stand today, this global pandemic does not as of itself provide grounds for Mr Assange’s release.”

2 April 2020: The independent United Nations human rights expert in Mali, Alioune Tine, has called on Australia to cease selling arms to the war-torn country and urged the international community to do more to stop nations “actively producing and selling weapons” in conflict zones. Tine said the diffusion of arms in the region should be considered a crime against humanity, and urged the international community, including the UN security council and African Union, to do more to pressure those nations exporting arms to conflict zones. According to the Guardian, the Australian government had issued 16 permits to arms manufacturers to export weapons or military technology to Mali in 2019 despite the fact that Mali has been in near-perpetual conflict for eight years. 

1 April 2020: Former Serbian paramilitary commander Dragan Vasiljkovic, alias Captain Dragan, who was convicted of committing war crimes against Croatian civilians and prisoners of war in 1991, was released from Lepoglava prison in northern Croatia last week after serving a 13½-year sentence. He led a paramilitary pro-Serbian group during the war in the 1990s. Vasiljkovic, who has both Serbian and Australian citizenship, was escorted across the border to Serbia by armed guards, and has been placed in quarantine for the coronavirus. He has been banned from entering any European Union country for 30 years, and Australian officials are also looking at taking away his Australian passport and right to live in Australia.

March

31 March 2020: Lawyers, through Stoke White, a UK based law firm, have filed a case through the United Nations regarding war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Yemen. The firm made the submissions in three jurisdictions - Britain, the US and Turkey, on behalf of its clients. Stoke White explained that the applications have been made using UN mechanisms, requesting the authorities to investigate further the notorious Sanaa Funeral Hall bombing in 2016, the UAE’s use of mercenaries and allegations of torture in secret prisons in the country. The submissions are said to include evidence that officials and even authorities higher up in the coalition partners, notably the UAE and Saudi Arabia as well as mercenaries were all involved directly in war crimes in Yemen. 

30 March 2020: Sri Lanka's president has pardoned a soldier who was sentenced to death for war crimes involving killing eight civilians during the country’s civil war, leading to accusations that the government was taking advantage of the chaos from the coronavirus pandemic to free a wartime ally accused of atrocities. The pardoned soldier, former Staff Sgt. Sunil Ratnayake, was sentenced in 2015 for blindfolding eight civilians from the Tamil ethnic group, slitting their throats and dumping their bodies into a sewer in 2000. Three of the victims were children. The pardon brought outrage from rights activists, including Amnesty International, which accused the government of taking advantage of a world distracted by the coronavirus to release those convicted of heinous crimes and termed the action as "reprehensible". 

30 March 2020: Chad rebel chief Mahamat Nouri has been freed from detention in France, where he was charged with crimes against humanity. Nouri was charged in Paris nine months ago over alleged crimes in Sudan and Chad between 2005 and 2010. He is the founder and exiled leader of the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD), one of the main groups opposing Chadian President Idriss Deby Itno. Before joining the rebels, Nouri served in several ministerial positions and held the position of defence minister between 2001 and 2003. 

27 March 2020: A report published by the Belgrade-based Humanitarian Law Centre NGO asserts that Serbian war crimes prosecutors are continuing to issue only a small number of indictments, most of them in cases transferred from Bosnia and Herzegovina, and none of them charging high-ranking suspects. It argues that bearing in mind that the War Crimes Prosecution Office’s data from November 2019 exhibits 2,557 cases in the preliminary investigation stage, only 15 cases are in the active investigation stage, hence such a work rate will solve a negligible percentage of war crimes cases in the coming period.

26 March 2020: The UK government has presented new legislation to protect military personnel and veterans from prosecution for alleged historical war crimes in conflicts overseas. The legislation proposes a five-year limit on criminal prosecutions from the date of an incident, unless there is compelling new evidence and a six-year limit for any civil case involving personal injury or death. The bill will also compel any future government to consider a derogation, effectively opting out from the European Convention on Human Rights in any conflict overseas. Human Rights Watch argues that if passed, the bill would greatly increase the risk that British soldiers who commit serious crimes will avoid justice. 

25 March 2020: According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the "apparently systematic" human rights violations in North Korean detention centres, including sexual violence against women and girls, could amount to crimes against humanity. Michelle Bachelet said the alleged violations appeared to have taken place under the "direct authority of two ministries" and with the likely involvement of "higher authorities" in North Korea. North Korea has repeatedly rejected accusations of human rights abuses and blames sanctions for a dire humanitarian situation. The country has been under UN sanctions since 2006 because of its ballistic missiles and nuclear programmes. 

24 March 2020: The trial by a German court of two alleged former Syrian intelligence officers accused of participating in crimes against humanity is set to begin in April and is expected to run at least until August. Anwar Raslan, 57, is charged with crimes against humanity, rape and 58 counts of murder, while 43-year-old Eyad Al-Gharib is accused of having been an accomplice. Raslan allegedly led the investigations division of "Branch 251" of the Syrian secret services, which operated a prison in the Damascus area. Prosecutors say he participated in the torture and abuse of prisoners between April 2011 and September 2012.

23 March 2020: The Swiss Federal Criminal Court has postponed the long-awaited war crimes trial of former Liberian rebel leader Alieu Kosiah due to the rapid spread of Covid-19. The trial had been scheduled to take place from April 14-30 in Bellinzona. It will be the first international criminal trial in a non-military Swiss court and “historic” according to Swiss group Civitas Maxima, one of the NGOs representing Liberian victims in the case. Kosiah, a former commander of the United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO), is charged with war crimes committed during the first Liberian civil war between 1989 and 1996. He was arrested in Switzerland in November 2014 and has been in pre-trial detention ever since, as Swiss authorities conducted investigations.  

20 March 2020: US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on March 17 threatened two staff members of the International Criminal Court. He called them out by name, claimed they were putting Americans at risk, and intimated that the US could act against them, as well as other ICC personnel and their families. On March 5, ICC judges authorized the court’s prosecutor to open an investigation into possible war crimes committed in connection with the conflict in Afghanistan. 

19 March 2020: Australia's Defence Minister Linda Reynolds says she is "deeply disturbed" by new allegations of war crimes committed by Australian special forces in Afghanistan, with the findings of a four-year investigation to be handed down within months. It comes as the ABC's Four Corners program aired explosive footage from a helmet camera of aAustralian soldier in Afghanistan shooting an unarmed Afghan man three times in the head and chest while he crouches on the ground. 

18 March 2020: A South African court ruled late last month that it would not extradite Guus Kouwenhoven, a Dutch arms dealer tied to Charles Taylor, the former Liberian President who was convicted for war crimes by the Special Court for Sierra Leone. The Cape Town court ruled against extradition, citing that Kouwenhoven committed his crimes in Liberia, not in the Netherlands and that consequently, that made his extradition contrary to the extradition treaty. The Dutch Supreme Court had upheld Kouwenhoven's sentencing in December 2018 and found that the 77-year-old businessman was guilty of smuggling weapons into Liberia and distributing them to the violent regime of then Liberian president Charles Taylor. 

17 March 2020: Former Congolese militia warlord, Thomas Lubanga, was yesterday set free after serving a landmark 14-year term for war crimes handed down by the International Criminal Court. The first man to be arrested, tried and convicted by the ICC in 2012, Lubanga went on trial in 2009, accused of enlisting child soldiers under the age of 15 years. In December 2015, he was transferred from the ICC prison to Kinshasa to serve the rest of his sentence with fellow Congolese warlord Germain Katanga, who was also convicted by the Internanational Criminal Court.

16 March 2020: Former Territorial Defence fighter Milan Trisic will go on trial on March 23 for crimes involving murders, expulsions, unlawful arrests and pillage, the Bosnian state court decided last week on Tuesday. Trisic is charged with crimes against humanity, which include having participated in the persecution of the Bosniak civilian population from the village of Hranca and the town of Bratunac during a widespread and systematic attack by the Bosnian Serb Army and police between April and October 1992. The indictment alleges that, as a member of the Territorial Defence force, he participated in several attacks on the village of Hranca during which people were unlawfully arrested and more than 250 local residents were forcibly relocated. 

13 March 2020: Finland has arrested Gibril Massaquoi, a 50 year old Sierra Leonean national suspected of committing war crimes and crimes against humanity in Liberia, the first African who is not a Liberian to be held in connection with the country’s 14-year bloody civil war. The former Sierra Leonean warlord who during the civil war in his country was a Lieutenant-Colonel and spokesman of the RUF rebel group was arrested on Tuesday by Finnish police after Civitas Maxima and the GJRP informed them about the warlord’s alleged involvement in mass atrocities in Liberia. 

11 March 2020: Afghan President Ashraf Ghani has signed a decree to release 1,500 Taliban prisoners as a move to launch direct talks with the armed group to end the 18-year war in Afghanistan that has resulted in the alleged commission of multiple war crimes and crimes against humanity. The release of prisoners is part of a deal signed by the United States and the Taliban last month that would allow US forces and NATO troops to withdraw from Afghanistan in order to foster peace in the region. 

10 March 2020: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court unanimously confirmed the admissibility of the case against Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi before the Court and rejected his appeal against the Pre-Trial Chamber I's decision dismissing his challenge to the admissibility of this case. In reviewing the Pre-Trial Chamber's decision, the Appeals Chamber found no error in it and agreed with its interpretation of the Rome Statute, indicating that the decision issued by a national jurisdiction must be final before a case can be declared inadmissible. Saif is accused of war crimes of murder, torture, cruel treatment and outrages upon personal dignity, and the crimes against humanity of persecution, imprisonment, torture, and other inhumane acts.

9 March 2020: The office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in Liberia has called on the Legislature to pass into law a bill seeking the establishment of war and economic crimes court in Liberia. The draft bill was crafted by the Liberia National Bar Association (LNBA) and is seeking the establishment of the court to prosecute individuals accused of gross violations of human rights, serious humanitarian law violations and certain domestic crimes. The resolution had already met the required two-thirds majority signature and was set to be passed when the Speaker took the unprecedented decision of ceasing it, much to the dismay of several lawmakers who championed the legislative piece. 

6 March 2020: The International Criminal Court  has authorised an investigation into possible war crimes committed in Afghanistan, which would include allegations against United States, Afghan and Taliban armed fighters. “The ICC Appeals Chamber’s decision to greenlight an investigation of brutal crimes in Afghanistan despite extreme pressure reaffirms the court’s essential role for victims when all other doors to justice are closed,” said Param-Preet Singh, the associate international justice director at Human Rights Watch.

5 March 2020: Amnesty International has called on police in Ethiopia to account for the whereabouts of Abdi Regassa, a senior member of the opposition political party Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), who remains missing after security officers in Addis Ababa broke into his home and arrested him alongside eight other party members on 29 February. The police have denied they are still holding him according to his lawyer and family members. The OLF, an extremist ethnic nationalist organization, accuses the Ethiopian government of assassination attempts,harassment and arbitrary arrest of the organizations’ leaders and maintains that Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed’s government is committing genocide in the region. Currently, the Ethiopian government has a military operation in the Wollega area of the region where the armed groups operate. 

4 March 2020: The UN Commission of Inquiry said in its report on Monday that Russia is responsible for war crimes in the ongoing Syrian conflict. The report’s findings were based on investigations conducted from July 11 to January 10. According to the report, Russia was in direct involvement in war crimes for indiscriminate bombing of civilian areas in syria. The report also states that human rights violations have continued, with activists, journalists and civilians being unlawfully detained. Access to medical care for the wounded has been undermined by aerial and ground attacks of pro-government forces, while attacks on women’s and children’s hospitals have prevented pregnant women and new mothers from receiving medical care. 

3 March 2020: The closing statements in the case The Prosecutor v. Dominic Ongwen are scheduled for 10-12 March 2020 before the International Criminal Court. The Prosecution, the Legal Representatives of Victims and the Defence will present their final arguments. Dominic Ongwen is accused of 70 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in northern Uganda. 

2 March 2020: WikiLeaks founder, Julian Assange last week appeared in a London court to fight attempts by the American authorities to make him answer charges of espionage. He is accused of conspiring with Chelsea Manning to break into a classified military network under another user’s identity and has been indicted on 17 counts of violating the Espionage Act that included his role in obtaining and publishing secret military and diplomatic documents. His subsequent disclosure of alleged war crimes included a classified military video showing a 2007 attack by Apache helicopters in Baghdad that killed a dozen people, including two employees of the Reuters news agency. If found guilty on all charges, Assange could face as many as 175 years in prison.

February

28 February 2020: El Salvador's Congress has narrowly approved a controversial law intended to allow the prosecution of war crimes committed during the country's bloody civil war. While proponents argue the law is meant to ensure that nobody receives an amnesty or pardon for their crimes during the civil war, opponents, including human rights organizations, argue it will achieve the opposite. The law is intended to establish how the country will handle justice and reparations for crimes against humanity during that period as well as history, access to military and police archives, and makes it illegal to praise disgraced characters for their role during the civil war. 

27 February 2020: On 11 February 2020, Colombia’s Constitutional Court made public its full reasoning in the precedent-setting tutela action by Helena (a pseudonym), a woman forcibly recruited by the FARC and subjected to forced contraception and forced abortion, as well as other violations. As analyzed by Opinio Juris, this decision is noteworthy both for its finding that forced contraception and forced abortion are forms of sexual and gender-based violence that constitute war crimes, as well as for its adoption and expansion of the ICC’s reasoning in Ntaganda with respect to intra-party crimes. Although this was ultimately a ruling on an individual constitutional action it may set important precedent for similar cases both in Colombia and elsewhere. 

26 February 2020: Australia is investigating more than 50 alleged war crimes by the country's special forces in Afghanistan, including the killing of civilians and prisoners, a military watchdog said. According to an annual report, these relate mainly to unlawful killings of persons who were non-combatants or were no longer combatants, as well as "cruel treatment" of such persons. The probe was launched in 2016 in response to what the watchdog called "rumours" of "very serious wrongdoing" over more than a decade by members of Australian special forces in Afghanistan. 

25 February 2020: After seven years of civil war, South Sudan's feuding leaders have announced a unity deal that has seen rebel leader Riek Machar sworn in as President Salva Kiir’s vice president. The announcement came amid war crimes report in which Andrew Clapham, a member of the U.N. commission said included thousands of civilians forcibly displaced following a scorched earth policy in which the parties to the conflict were attacking villages, torching homes, killing civilians and also raping women and girls. This kind of arrangement has twice collapsed before and numerous attempts at peace have failed, including a deal that saw Mr. Machar return as vice president in 2016, only to flee the country on foot months later amid fresh gunfire. 

24 February 2020: Sri Lanka's Prime Minister, who oversaw a brutal end to a decades-long conflict with Tamil separatists, announced on Wednesday last week that the country was withdrawing from a United Nations resolution investigating alleged war crimes. It is believed the move is a response to the US imposing a travel ban on Sri Lanka’s army commander and his family. The travel ban alleges that Commander Silva committed human rights violations during the final stages of the civil war in 2009 and uses that as the basis for denying him entry to the US. 

20 February 2020: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court delivered its judgment yesterday, unanimously rejecting the appeal of Al Hassan Ag Abdoul Aziz and consequently confirming Pre-Trial Chamber I's decision of 27 September 2019, which had considered that the case against Mr Al Hassan is of sufficient gravity to justify further action by the Court. Mr Al Hassan was transferred to the ICC on 31 March 2018 following a warrant of arrest issued by the Chamber on 27 March 2018 for war crimes and crimes against humanity

19 February 2020: The Nigerian military burned and forcibly displaced entire villages in response to a recent escalation in attacks by the armed group Boko Haram, Amnesty International reported, based on interviews with affected villagers in Borno State and satellite data analysis. Osai Ojigho, Director of Amnesty International Nigeria asserted that these brazen acts of razing entire villages, deliberately destroying civilian homes and forcibly displacing their inhabitants with no imperative military grounds, should be investigated as possible war crimes.  

17 February 2020: The United States has imposed an entry bar on Sri Lanka’s army chief, Lt. Gen. Shavendra Silva, citing his alleged involvement in war crimes during the final stages of the country’s civil war. According to a statement on Sunday, Sri Lanka denounced the ban, reiterating that there were no substantiated or proven allegations of human rights violations against Silva. 

14 February 2020: Zijad Hamzic, who was acquitted of war crimes against Serbs in the Kladanj area, is suing the state for 7,860 euros in compensation because he was put under house arrest and barred from travelling. Hamzic and six other defendants were acquitted in September 2017 of the unlawful detention, beating and inhumane treatment of Serb civilians in Stupari, near Kladanj, between May 1992 and July 1993. 

13 February 2020: The United Kingdom, Turkey and the United States have been asked to open police investigations into alleged war crimes committed by the United Arab Emirates and its mercenaries in Yemen in 2015 and 2019, and arrest Emirati officials under the principle of universal jurisdiction. Yemeni complainants filed charges through a UK law firm asserting that UAE officials hired mercenaries to attack and kill civilians. 

12 February 2020: Sudan's transitional authorities and rebel groups from Darfur have agreed that those wanted by the International Criminal Court for crimes in the region should appear before the tribunal. Omar al-Bashir, who was ousted in April 2019 after months of nationwide protests, faces five counts of crimes against humanity and two counts of war crimes at the ICC in The Hague. The crimes were allegedly committed during Sudan's military campaign in Darfur between 2003 and 2008. 

11 February 2020: Six Libyan families sued Libyan eastern-based renegade commander Khalifa Haftar and the United Arab Emirates government in a federal U.S. court on Monday for their alleged roles in committing war crimes in Libya. In the lawsuit filed in the Federal District Court of the District of Columbia, the families, whose relatives were murdered, injured or faced attempted killings are seeking $1 billion in damages. According to the plaintiffs’ attorneys, Martin F. McMahon & Associates, Haftar is "not just a war criminal, but also a U.S. citizen with assets and family members in the U.S. and he can and will be held accountable for his illegal and barbaric acts". 

10 February 2020: Five leaders of a predominantly Christian militia in the Central African Republic have been handed life sentences for war crimes and crimes against humanity after dozens of Muslims were slaughtered in a southeastern town in May 2017. Twenty-eight individuals were also given terms ranging from 10-15 years of forced labour, mainly for murder and illegal possession of weapons. CAR's Justice Minister, Flavien Mbata said that it was the first time a sentence for crimes against humanity had been handed down by a CAR court. 

7 February 2020: Former reservist policeman Goran Stanisic was charged with participating in the deportation of Kosovo Albanians during the war in 1999, as well as committing other war crimes against civilians. Kosovo’s Special Prosecution claims that Stanisic participated in the deportation of the Kosovo Albanian civilian population and was involved in killings and other unlawful acts, in violation of international humanitarian law.

6 February 2020: 78 women and 50 children were released by an armed group in South Sudan early this week. They were among more than 500 women and children abducted between April and August 2018 by the pro-Riek Machar Sudan People’s Liberation Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO RM) and subjected to repeated rape, sexual slavery and forced marriage. South Sudan, the world’s youngest country, has been marred by years of armed conflict and instability following a political crisis which has resulted in the commission of serious alleged war crimes

5 February 2020: On 1 February 2020 Kiribati became the 123rd State Party to the Rome Statute of the ICC, thus becoming the newest ICC member, and the 16th State Party among the Pacific Island states. Adopted in July 1998, the Rome Statute led to the establishment of the International Criminal Court – the only permanent international judicial mechanism with the objective of investigating and prosecuting genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and the crime of aggression in 2002. 

4 February 2020: This week the ICC Appeals Chamber will hold a hearing in the Gbagbo and Blé Goudé case to hear observations on the application of Mr Laurent Gbagbo of 7 October 2019, requesting the Appeals Chamber to reconsider its judgment of 1 February 2019 which imposed conditions on the release of Mr Laurent Gbagbo and Mr Blé Goudé following their acquittal. Mr Gbagbo and Mr Blé Goudé were charged with crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Côte d'Ivoire in 2010 and 2011. 

3 February 2020: Islam Alloush, a former spokesperson for Jaish al-Islam, a group largely based in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta and suspected for the disappearance of a number of prominent human rights activists, has been arrested in France for war crimes. It is alleged that Jaish al-Islam carried out a "reign of terror" in the areas it controlled and numbered more than 20,000 fighters. Alloush is thought to have travelled to France on an Erasmus student visa. 

January

31 January 2020: At the 7th annual dinner of the Coordinating Council Of The Armenian Organizations in France (CCAF), historian Taner Akçam said that recognition of Armenian Genocide was a precondition for peaceful society in Turkey. Akçam maintained that Turkey's acknowledgement of the atrocities of its predecessor, the Ottoman empire, was a precondition for its people to be able to live in peace and tranquillity, not only with one another but with the other people of the region. 

30 January 2020: A Dutch district court has thrown out a case alleging war crimes against former Israeli Armed Forces chief Benny Gantz brought by a Dutch Palestinian who lost six relatives in an Israeli air strike on Gaza in 2014, saying it did not have jurisdiction. “A Dutch judge is not competent to rule on the case of the claimant,” presiding Judge Larisa Alwin said, explaining that universal jurisdiction could be applied for individual criminal responsibility but not in a civil case. In civil cases in national courts, Gantz enjoys immunity from prosecution due to his government function at the time of the alleged crimes, Alwin said. 

30 January 2020: A former member of Guatemala's paramilitary community patrols was arrested Wednesday on charges of crimes against humanity, after he was deported from the United States. Francisco Cuxum Alvarado allegedly participated in mass rapes of indigenous women between 1981 and 1985, during the country’s 36-year civil war. He was a member of a civil militia that helped government forces violently remove, rape and massacre Maya Achi people from the Rio Negro area. 

29 January 2020: Miladin Trifunovic, the wartime commander of the Vogosca Brigade of the Bosnian Serb Army, went on trial at the Bosnian state court on Tuesday for committing crimes against humanity in the Vogosca and Ilijas area in 1992. The indictment alleges that Trifunovic’s actions were part of a widespread and systematic attack by the Bosnian Serb Army on the Bosniak civilian population in the municipalities of Vogosca and Ilijas between early July 1992 and December 16 that year. 

28 January 2020: The European Union has called on the Myanmar government to act on the report by a government-established international panel that found war crimes and grave human rights abuses had been committed in Rakhine State in 2017. The commission, headed by senior Philippine diplomat Rosario Manalo, said in its 461-page report that war crimes had been committed during the massive military campaign against the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA) between August 25 and September 5, 2017. 

27 January 2020: Today the world marks the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz. From the perspective of the ICC, the vow of 'never again' is a shared responsibility regarding which the Court stands ready to play its part. In a statement by the President of the ICC, Judge Chile Eboe-Osuji, that part requires the ICC to put itself between the victims and the atrocities that the world had in mind when creating the ICC, even if this means brooking political attacks against the Court itself.    

27 January 2020: The Special Department for War Crimes of the Prosecutor’s Office of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) has filed an indictment against Ljuban Ećim, born in 1964 in Svilajnac, Serbia. Ećim is charged with committing crimes against humanity in Kotor Varoš and surrounding areas from the beginning of June 1992 until mid-1994, having participated in a joint criminal enterprise, with other commanders and members of the military and police. 

24 January 2020: The trial of Thomas Kwoyelo, a former commander of the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), resumed last week before the International Crimes Division (ICD) sitting at the High Court of Uganda in Gulu. Kwoyelo is facing 93 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed between January 1995 and December 2005 in northern Uganda. 

23 January 2020: The Court of Nations has ordered Myanmar to “take all measures within its power” to prevent its military or others from carrying out genocidal acts against the Rohingya, who it said faced “real and imminent risk.” In a unanimously - ruled order issued by a panel of 17 judges, and read by presiding Judge Abdulaqawi Ahmed Yusuf, the court upheld the provisions of the 1948 Genocide Convention, saying Myanmar had "caused irreparable damage to the rights of the Rohingya. The ICJ also essentially put Myanmar under court oversight, telling it to submit regular reports to the tribunal explaining what steps it had taken. 

22 January 2020: The International Criminal Court delays jurisdiction ruling on Israel war crimes case over document length amid calls for sanctions against it. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu accuses the Hague Court of a "full frontal attack" on democracy and the Jewish people's right to live in Israel in light of its prosecutor's intent to probe Israel's alleged war crimes against Palestinians. 

21 January 2020: An independent commission established by Myanmar's government has concluded there are reasons to believe that security forces committed war crimes in counterinsurgency operations that led more than 700,000 members of the country's Muslim Rohingya minority to flee to neighboring Bangladesh. The commission however asserts that there is no evidence supporting charges that genocide was planned or carried out against the Rohingya. 

20 January 2020:  President Donald Trump insists that Iranian cultural sites are fair game for US military, dismissing concerns that it may constitute a war crime under international law. He further threatens punitive sanctions on Iran if US troops were expelled in retaliation for an American air strike in Baghdad that killed a senior Iranian official. Iran however promises to retaliate, and the Iraqi parliament responded on Sunday by voting to oust US troops based in the country.

15 January 2020: The trial of Malko Koroman, former chief of the Serbian police’s Public Security Station, commenced in Bosnia on Monday. Koroman faces charges of crimes against humanity relating to allegations that he organised and enabled unlawful arrests and detentions at both the Public Security Station and a nearby gym, as part of a widespread and systematic attack on the Bosniak civilian population in 1992. It is alleged that the detainees were subjected to torture and murder. Witnesses for the prosecution are due to be called on 27 January.

14 January 2020: The Supreme Court of Bangladesh has upheld the death sentence of Syed Mohammad Qaisar for crimes against humanity committed during the 1971 Liberation War. Qaisar, a former state minister of the Jatiya Party in Bangladesh, had appealed the conviction and sentence given to him by Bangladesh’s now defunct International Crimes Tribunal-2 in 2014. This is the 9th crimes against humanity case to be dealt with by the Supreme Court. 

13 January 2020: Violence committed recently in the Democratic Republic of the Congo may amount to crimes against humanity, according to the United Nations. At least 701 people have been killed and 168 injured in attacks in the Ituri province involving Hema and Lendu communities between December 2017 and September 2019. In particular, Lendu armed groups have become highly organised in orchestrating attacks against the Hema, with the objective of taking control of their land and resources. The grave violence committed includes sexual violence and beheadings, including against women and children. 

10 January 2020: Former politician Charles Blé Goudé has been convicted in absentia in Côte d'Ivoire and sentenced to 20 years’ imprisonment for charges of murder, rape and torture committed during a period of post-election violence in 2010-2011. In January 2019 Blé Goudé and former President Laurent Gbagbo were acquitted by the International Criminal Court of crimes against humanity allegedly committed during the same period on the basis that there was no case to answer. As per the ruling of the Court, Blé Goudé remains in the Netherlands pending a possible appeal of this decision.

9 January 2020: report released by the Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC) in the United States has indicated that crimes against humanity may have been committed by China in the Xinjiang region. The report specifically refers to the mass internment camps in China that have been used to detain the Uighur, Kazakh and other ethnic minorities. The report states: ‘Scholars and rights groups provided a strong argument, based on available evidence, that the "crimes against humanity" framework may apply to the case of mass internment camps’ in China. It also calls on governments to implement sanctions against China for this conduct. 

7 January 2020: A statement released by Human Rights Watch has indicated that if carried out, US President Donald Trump’s threats of targeting cultural sites in Iran could constitute war crimes. These threats have arisen in the context of tensions following a drone strike of 3 January that killed commander of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Quds Force, Qassem Soleimani. Human Rights Watch stated: “Trump’s threats against Iran’s cultural heritage reflect his administration’s broader disregard for human rights in Iran and elsewhere”, also urging the US to comply with the laws of armed conflict at all times.

December

17 December 2019: A former Argentinian police officer has been extradited from France to Argentina. Mario Sandoval is suspected of crimes against humanity, including torture, allegedly committed during Argentina’s dictatorship. In particular, he is implicated in the killing of architecture student Hernán Abriata, who disappeared from a secret detention center in Buenos Aires in 1976. Sandoval has been living in France for over 30 years, working as a university lecturer and security advisor to French officials. Argentina first requested his extradition in 2012 and Sandoval had continued to deny and appeal the accusations against him, until last week when France’s top administrative court approved his extradition.

16 Dec 2019: Bosnian prosecutors have indicted Milan Lukic, a Bosnian Serb paramilitary leader who was previously convicted of war crimes and sentenced to life imprisonment in 2012 by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Following an interrogation of Lukic in Estonia, where he is currently serving his life sentence, the Bosnian prosecutor has issued an indictment for crimes that were not covered in the ICTY case. This indictment includes war crimes relating to the torture and execution of 20 people seized from a train passing through Bosnia in 1993 by the White Eagles/Avengers paramilitary group, led by Lukic. The indictment has been sent to the Bosnian State Court for confirmation.  

12 December 2019: Pre-Trial Chamber II (PTC II) of the International Criminal Court has confirmed the charges against Alfred Yekatom and Patrice-Edouard Ngaïssona. PTC II unanimously decided that there is substantial grounds to believe Yekatom and Ngaïssona are responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Central African Republic between 2013-2014, committing both to trial. 

11 December 2019: Montenegro's Court of Appeal has confirmed the conviction of former Yugoslav soldier Vlado Zmajevic of war crimes for the murder of four ethnic Albanians in Kosovo in 1999. He faces a sentence of 14 years' imprisonment. This judgment is final and cannot be appealed. To date, Montenegro has only tried six war crimes cases.   

10 December 2019: Charges against former Liberian first lady Agnes Reeves Taylor have been dismissed in a United Kingdom court. Taylor was charged with torture and conspiracy to commit torture allegedly committed during Liberia’s civil war and has remained in custody since her arrest in 2017. Her ex-husband, former Liberian President Charles Taylor, is currently serving a 50 year sentence for aiding and abetting war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone.

9 December 2019: The Assembly of States Parties has approved a Swiss proposal enabling the International Criminal Court (ICC) to prosecute the war crime of intentional starvation of civilians in non-international armed conflicts. Previously, starvation of civilians was only a war crime under the Rome Statute if committed during international armed conflicts. As pointed out by scholar Kevin Jon Heller on the Opinio Juris blog, this amendment will only apply to States Parties who choose to ratify it.

5 December 2019: An Argentinian rights group has released a report alleging that members of Bolivia’s de facto government are responsible for crimes against humanity. The report states: "We have found that the repressive system set up by the de facto government has caused dozens of deaths, hundreds of arbitrary detentions, thousands of wounded, countless cases of coercion and torture, rapes and other crimes against the physical, psychological and sexual integrity of the victims who are men, women, children, the elderly and members of vulnerable groups”.

4 December 2019: The Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (OTP) has confirmed its decision not to open an investigation into an attack by Israeli Defense forces on a Flotilla carrying humanitarian aid to the Gaza Strip. The OTP has maintained its position that this situation is not sufficiently grave to open an investigation. This follows a decision by the Pre-Trial Chamber in November 2018 ordering the OPT to reconsider its decision not to open an investigation into the Comoros situation.

2 December 2019: A former senior military official has been indicted in Guatemala on charges of genocide and crimes against humanity allegedly committed during the country’s 36-year civil war. Luis Enrique Mendoza Garcia is due to be tried in March for his role in an operation in the 1980s that led to the death of at least 1,771 of the Maya Ixil Indigenous group and displaced thousands. Mendoza Garcia is the fourth military official to be indicted recently for genocide against the Maya Ixil community, alongside Benedicto Lucas Garcia, Manuel Callejas and Cesar Noguera.

November

29 November 2019: A group of Brazilian lawyers and former ministers have lodged a complaint with the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court against President Jair Bolsonaro. The Arms Commission for Human Rights Defense and Brazil’s Human Rights Advocacy Collective (CADHu) requested that the Prosecutor investigate allegations that Bolsonaro is guilty of inciting genocide of Indigenous peoples and committing crimes against humanity for failure to protect the Amazon forest in light of the recent fires. 

28 November 2019: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court has rejected the appeal of Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo and confirmed the September 2018 Re-Sentencing Decision of Trial Chamber VII. In this decision the Trial Chamber sentenced Bemba to one year of imprisonment and ordered a 300,000 euro fine for witness interference during the proceedings against him. 

25 November 2019: In response to the BBC Panorama/Sunday Times joint investigation which found that the United Kingdom armed forces have been involved in repeatedly covering up evidence of war crimes committed in Iraq and Afghanistan, a joint letter authored by the directors of a number of human rights organisations has called on whichever political party which will form the next UK government to take action to address these allegations. The crimes revealed in the investigation include the murder of children, torture and the killing of civilians. The letter calls for prompt and effective investigation by a fully independent body, where appropriate leading to the domestic prosecution of those responsible, as well as cooperation with any investigation the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court may take into these alleged crimes.   

22 November 2019: The head of the Raia Mutomboki militia group, Frederic Masudi Alimasi, has been convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment by a military court in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Alimasi was found guilty of the crimes against humanity of rape, murder, torture, sexual slavery, deprivation of liberty, looting and destruction of property. The court also held that the Congolese state was responsible for failing to protect civilians and ordered it to pay damages to over 300 victims.

21 November 2019: An Iranian national has been detained in Sweden and awaits a decision by Swedish prosecutors as to whether he will be charged with crimes against humanity. Hamid Nouri was arrested upon arrival at the international airport in Stockholm. He is accused of involvement in the execution of thousands of political prisoners in 1988 in his former position as assistant prosecutor in Iran’s prison system. This is the first time that a high-level Iranian official could be prosecuted in a foreign country for crimes committed in Iran pursuant to the principle of universal jurisdiction.

20 November 2019: Two US soldiers, Lieutenant Clint Lorance and Major Mathew Golsteyn, have been granted presidential pardons in relation to war crimes cases. Lorance had been convicted and sentenced to 19 years’ imprisonment for the shooting of Afghani civilians in 2013, whilst the trial of Golsteyn for allegedly executing an unarmed Afghani civilian suspected of being a Taliban bomb-maker was set to commence in February 2020. The demotion of Petty Chief Officer Edward Gallagher, who earlier this year was acquitted of the murder of a 17 year old ISIS militant, but convicted of posing with a corpse for a picture, has also been reversed.

19 November 2019: The Pre-Trial Chamber III of the International Criminal Court has granted the Prosecutor’s request to open an investigation into the Situation in Myanmar/Bangladesh. This follows the Jurisdiction Decision of September 2018 which indicated that the ICC has jurisdiction over crimes where at least one element of the crime was perpetrated in the territory of a State Party to the Rome Statute. As such, the Court found it has jurisdiction over the crime against humanity of deportation of the Rohingya population from Myanmar, which is not a State Party to the Rome Statute, to Bangladesh, which is a State Party.

15 November 2019: Aung San Suu Kyi, head of state of Myanmar, has been named among other high level officials in a case filed in Argentina relating to crimes against humanity committed against the Rohingya population. This case has been brought pursuant to the principle of universal jurisdiction, enshrined in Argentinian law. A separate case was also launched this week in the International Court of Justice relating to violations of the Genocide Convention by Myanmar.

14 November 2019: A court in Vietnam has convicted an Australian national of a the crime of "terrorism to oppose the people’s administration’ and sentenced him to 12 years', alongside two Vietnamese citizens. The three men belong to an organisation called the Viet Tan, which the Vietnamese government has designated as a terrorist organisation, but has been described by the United Nations as "a peaceful organisation advocating for democratic reform". The group has called the proceedings a  “sham trial” and accused the government of "criminalizing human rights advocacy". 

13 November 2019: A Paris Court of Appeal has overturned the decision to prosecute the French company Lafarge for crimes against humanity, but has upheld the charges of financing terrorism. Lafarge continues to be under investigation over allegations that a subsidiary of the company continued to operate factories during the conflict in Syria and paid money to intermediaries who negotiated with ISIS to transfer employees and supplies through dangerous areas in order to evacuate the country.

12 November 2019: Five torture survivors from Syria have filed a criminal complaint in Norway against officials from the Syrian intelligence services and military. The victims, supported by several human rights groups, have requested Norwegian prosecutors to investigate the allegations of torture and crimes against humanity. 17 officials have been identified as being involved in the alleged crimes committed in 14 different detention facilities. Currently, similar claims of crimes in Syria have been brought in France, Sweden and Austria pursuant to universal jurisdiction, with the first trial expected to start in Germany in early 2020.

11 November 2019: The Supreme Court of Pakistan has released a decision on the definition of terrorism. The decision discusses the development of the definition of terrorism under Pakistani law, highlighting the emergence of a concept of terrorism that is based upon the objective and motivation of the particular crime. In particular, an act will be considered terrorism if it is intended to undermine the State, rather than based on whether it causes fear and insecurity in society. The Supreme Court indicated that this approach is more consistent with international perspectives than the previous 'effects-based' definition adopted in Pakistan, calling on the legislature to amend and clarify terrorism legislation to reflect the current approach.    

8 November 2019: Bosco Ntaganda has been sentenced by the International Criminal Court (ICC) to 30 years’ imprisonment for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 2002-2003. This is the longest sentence that has been handed down by the Court to date. Ntaganda was convicted in July of 18 counts including murder, rape and the use of child soldiers. He is also the first person to be convicted of sexual slavery before the ICC.  

7 November 2019: The South African government is considering a bill that will initiate the process for withdrawal from the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The International Crimes Bill is currently before the South African Parliament’s Justice and Correctional Services Committee. It criminalises genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes and creates an alternative system to the International Criminal Court (ICC) to prosecute international crimes at the domestic level. South Africa was reprimanded by the ICC in 2015 for failing to arrest then sitting President of Sudan Omar Al-Bashir during a visit to South Africa, in spite of a warrant for his arrest that had been issued by the ICC. In support of the bill, the South African government has cited concerns that the ICC is not in compliance with international law by failing to respect the immunity of heads of state. The leader of the opposition party Democratic Alliance has indicated the party will oppose the bill.

6 November 2019: The trial of Fabien Neretse, a former Rwandan official and alleged Hutu militia leader, has commenced in Belgium. Neretse is accused of committing genocide in Rwanda in 1994. This is the fifth trial in Belgium in relation to the conflict in Rwanda of 1994 but the first in which the accused has been charged with the crime of genocide. The charges relate in particular to the killing of Belgian citizen Claire Beckers, her husband Isaïe Bucyana, a Tutsi, and their daughter Katia.

4 November 2019: The municipality of Gjakova/Djakovica’s Office for the Collection and Documentation of War Crimes in Kosovo has filed 102 new criminal complaints to the police relating to alleged war crimes committed by Serbian nationals. This is the 13th time the Office has filed criminal complaints of this nature, bringing the total number of complaints to around 1,600. The head of the office, Shkendije Hoda, stated: “The aim of these complaints is to provide help and provide evidence about [war] crimes. We see that the police have the will to deal with our evidence”.

October

31 October 2019: Prosecutors in Germany have charged two alleged former Syrian secret service officers with crimes against humanity. Anwar Raslan is alleged to have led an investigation unit which is accused of torturing detainees, and has been charged with 59 counts of murder, as well as rape and aggravated sexual assault. Eyad al-Gharib is accused of reporting directly to Raslan, and arresting protesters who were then delivered to the investigation unit’s prison, known as Branch 251. He has been charged with abduction and torture. Raslan and Gharib sought asylum in Germany in 2014 and 2018 respectively, and were arrested in February in a joint operation by German and French police. The trial is set to start in 2020.

30 October 2019: The Trust Fund of the Truth, Reconciliation and Reparations Commission (TRRC) in Gambia is to receive $1 mil from assets seized from former President Yahya Jammeh. The funds are to provide compensation to victims of Jammeh’s regime. The Trust Fund is unique in that the compensation is paid directly from the TRRC. Gambia’s Justice Minister Abubacarr Tambadou stated: “... former President Yahya Jammeh was a central pillar of terror and human rights abuses that were unleashed on ordinary Gambians and others under his leadership. Consequently, the government deems it more fitting and just that reparations for his victims should be granted directly from his wealth and assets”. An investigation by the Gambian government uncovered that Jammeh stole $362 mil from the State during his time as President.

28 October 2019: The first person to be tried for terrorism offences in the United Kingdom for fighting against ISIS has been convicted. Aidan James was found guilty of attending a terrorist training camp in Iraq. He travelled to Iraq in August 2017, where he underwent combat training with the YPG and had several interactions with the PKK. He arrived back in the UK in February 2018, where he was arrested upon arrival at Liverpool airport and charged with terrorism offences the following day. He is due to be sentenced on 7 November.

25 October 2019: The Prosecutor for the Kosovo Specialist Chambers based in The Hague has summoned former commander of the Kosovo Liberation Army’s (KLA) general staff/former politician Azem Syla for questioning. The prosecution is currently investigating alleged war crimes committed by KLA during and just after the 1998-1999 war in Kosovo. It is not currently known whether Syla as been invited to The Hague as a witness or possible suspect. Several other Kosovo Albanians have also been invited for questioning.

24 October 2019: The head of the United Nations fact-finding mission on Myanmar has warned that there is a “serious risk of genocide reoccurring” against the Rohingya Muslim minority still residing in the country. In an address to the General Assembly’s human rights committee, Marzuki Sarusman stated: “Myanmar is failing in its obligations under the Genocide Convention to prevent genocide, to investigate genocide and to enact effective legislation and to enact effective legislation criminalizing and punishing genocide”. Recently, the fact-finding mission transferred 1,227 interviews of victims and witnesses to the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar, a new UN body.

23 October 2019: The Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court has filed an appeal requesting the Appeals Chamber to declare a mistrial for the proceedings against Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé which resulted in their acquittal in January. Former head of state Gbagbo and former his deputy Blé Goudé were acquitted of crimes against humanity related to post-electoral violence in 2010-2011 in Côte d'Ivoire. Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda sought the declaration of mistrial on the basis that the trial judges failed to comply with the Court’s rules when rendering the acquittals without offering written explanations, as at the time of the acquittal only oral reasons were offered, with the decision being issued six months later. She also argues that the Trial Chamber applied inconsistent and unpredictable legal and evidentiary standards in considering the defense motion for stay of proceedings. The first paragraph of the filing states “[t]o build public trust, it is essential for the Court to act predictably and in accordance with the applicable law”.

21 October 2019: The French Court of Cassation has upheld the life sentence of two Rwandans who were convicted of genocide and crimes against humanity committed in 1994 in Rwanda. Octavian Ngenzi and Tito Barahira, successive Mayors (Bourgmestres) of the former Kabarondo Commune, were accused of participating in the massacre of Tutsi refugees at the Kabarondo Catholic Church, resulting in the death of 1,200 people.

18 October 2019: The Court of Appeal in Bucharest, Romania, has acquitted two former Securitate officers who were accused of committing crimes against humanity, leading to the death of political dissident Gheorghe Ursu whilst detained in 1985. Marin Parvulescu and Vasile Hodis were former members of Romania’s political police for the communist regime, who maintained their innocence throughout the trial process. They were accused of conducting interrogations of Ursu and subjecting him to systematic beatings. The judgment is not final and will be appealed by the Ursu family’s legal counsel. Four others have already been convicted in relation to Ursu’s death.

17 October 2019: The proceedings against Thomas Kwoyelo in the International Crimes Division of the Ugandan High Court have been indefinitely adjourned. The adjournment relates to a dispute between the prosecution and defense about the use of closed sessions. Kwoyelo is a former Lord’s Resistance Army commander who has been charged with 93 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed between January 1995 and December 2005 in northern Uganda.

16 October 2019: Mental health experts will provide testimony for the defense in the proceedings against Dominic Ongwen before the International Criminal Court (ICC). Trial Chamber IX has allowed the experts to testify to Ongwen’s mental state during the period which he has been charged with committing crimes against humanity and war crimes, but not as to his current mental state. The hearings will take place late November. The testimony will support the defense's argument that Ongwen had mental illness or defect during the period when the crimes are alleged to have been committed and as a result he is not responsible for these crimes. Ongwen faces charges of 70 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed when he was a commander in the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) in northern Uganda between July 2002 and December 2005.

15 October 2019: Genocide Watch has re-issued a genocide alert for the Kurdish, Christian and Yezidi minority populations in North East Syria following the recent Turkish incursion, suggesting the ‘Turkish narrative is used as a "self-defense justification" for genocidal massacres of Kurds.’ The warning was originally issued in January 2018 when Turkish forces launched cross-border military operations in Afrin in North West Syria in order to target the Syrian Kurdish People’s Protection Units (YPG). Genocide Watch has also co-signed a joint statement with 97 humanitarian organisations active in Syria condemning the Turkish offensive and warning of the risks that the situation will develop into a wide-scale conflict.

14 October 2019: An Iraqi national who was extradited from Greece to Germany is facing charges of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and human trafficking. The suspect, identified as Taha A.-J, is alleged to have been a member of terrorist organization Islamic State since 2013. German Prosecutors allege Taha was married to German national Jennifer W and that in 2015 the couple bought a 5 year old Yazidi girl and her mother as slaves. Whilst enslaved, the mother and child were forced to convert to Islam and were beaten, with the child dying of dehydration whilst chained outdoors. The Prosecution argue that this killing was part of Islamic State’s wider plan to exterminate Yazidis and constitutes genocide. The trial of Jennifer W commenced in Germany in April.

10 October 2019: Former federal prosecutor Roberto Domingo Mazzoni and former penitentiary warden Pablo César Casco are the first civilians to be convicted for crimes against humanity perpetrated during Argentina’s 1976-1983 military dictatorship. The Tribunal Oral Federal Penal court in Resistencia sentenced both to 11 years’ imprisonment and banned both from public office for life. Mazzoni was convicted for not investigating crimes, malfeasance and applying illegal pressure. Casco was convicted for the politically motivated torture of prisoner Hugo Dedieu, who was detained at U7 penitentiary where Casco was previously warden.

9 October 2019: The International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals (IRMCT) has issued a Review Judgement in the Case of Prosecutor v Augustin Ngirabatware rejecting Ngirabatware’s claim that the key witnesses in his trial had truthfully recanted their testimonies. In 2012 Augustin Ngirabatware was convicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda of direct and public incitement to commit genocide, instigating and aiding and abetting genocide and the crime against humanity of rape through the extended form of joint criminal enterprise. In its first decision in 2014, the IRMCT confirmed the convictions of direct and public incitement to commit genocide and instigating and aiding and abetting genocide, quashed the crime against humanity conviction and sentenced Ngirabatware to 30 years’ imprisonment.  

8 October 2019: Amnesty International released a report, entitled “Do you think we will prosecute ourselves: No prospects for accountability in South Sudan”, highlighting what it calls the “crippled justice system” in South Sudan. The report criticises the lack of independence of the judiciary, as well as the government of South Sudan for granting blanket amnesties for international crimes and failing to investigate and prosecute alleged war crimes committed by both government and opposition forces in the armed conflict since 2013. “By repeatedly granting these blanket amnesties, the President violates South Sudan’s obligations under international law and denies victims’ rights to truth, justice and reparations”. The report calls for the establishment of a hybrid transitional justice mechanism, which was provided for in the peace agreements of 2015 and 2018 but never materialised.

7 October 2019: The United Nations Human Rights Council has adopted a resolution to create an independent fact-finding body to investigate human rights violations in Venezuela since 2014. Allegations against the Venezuelan government include enforced disappearance, arbitrary arrests, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and extrajudicial killings. The resolution was presented by the Lima Group, including Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Paraguay, and Peru. Human Rights Watch has called on the body to share information with the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, which opened a preliminary examination into the situation of alleged crimes against humanity in Venezuela in February 2018, and also called on other States to prosecute torture cases pursuant to universal jurisdiction.

3 October 2019: A law firm has petitioned the International Criminal Court (ICC) to investigate alleged crimes against humanity committed by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, including the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi. The filing states: "Mohammed Bin Salman, through command or superior responsibility, is guilty of murder, torture, rape, extortion, illegal detentions, wrongful prosecution and the death penalty, i.e., crimes against humanity as defined in Article 7 of the Rome Statute".

2 October 2019: The Bosnian Constitutional Court has rejected the appeal filed by former Serbian paramilitary leader Gojko Jankovic. Jankovic was convicted in 2017 and sentenced to 34 years’ imprisonment for crimes against humanity committed against the non-Serb civilian population of Foča, including unlawful detention, murder, torture and rape and sexual enslavement of young women and girls. He was originally indicted before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), with his case being referred to Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2005.  

1 October 2019: The Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court has confirmed the charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity of Al Hassan Ag Abdoul Aziz Ag Mohamed Ag Mahmoud. The Chamber found there are substantial grounds for concluding that Al Hassan is responsible for crimes against humanity and war crimes in Timbuktu, Mali between 2012-2013.

September 

27 September 2019: Nine Sudanese victims have filed a criminal complaint in a French Court relating to alleged complicity of BNP Paribas (BNPP) in crimes against humanity, torture and genocide in Sudan. The filing was supported by FIDH and Project Expedite Justice. Between 2002 and 2008 the Sudanese government is alleged to have committed numerous international crimes which led to the death of more than 300,000 civilians. In proceedings in the United States related to BNPP’s breach of US sanctions, the company admitted to acting as Sudan’s foreign bank during this period. Investigations are also ongoing in France relating ot BNPP’s role in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.    

26 September 2019: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Fatou Bensouda, has announced her intention to appeal the acquittal of former Ivory Coast leader Laurent Gbagbo. In January 2019, Gbagbo and his deputy Charles Blé Goudé were acquitted of crimes against humanity relating to post-electoral violence in 2010-2011 in Côte d'Ivoire that led to the death of around 3,000 people.

25 September 2019: An indictment against Salim Jamil Ayyash has been made public by the Special Tribunal for Lebanon. The indictment relates to attacks against three Lebanese politicians, Mr Marwan Hamade, Mr Georges Hawi and Mr Elias El- Murr. It contains five charges, including conspiracy to commit a terrorist act (alternatively criminal association), committing terrorist acts, intentional homicide with premeditation and attempted intentional homicide with premeditation. Both a Lebanese and international arrest warrant has been issued for Ayyash, whose current whereabouts is unknown.

24 September 2019: The confirmation of charges hearing in The Prosecutor v. Alfred Yekatom and Patrice-Edouard Ngaïssona has commenced at the International Criminal Court. The hearing is scheduled until 27 September 2019, with the Pre-Trial Chamber to delivery its decision on whether there is sufficient evidence to proceed with a trial within 60 days. Alfred Yekatom and Patrice-Edouard Ngaïssona are alleged to be responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Central African Republic between 2013-2014.  

23 September 2019: Liberian President George Weah has endorsed the creation of a war crimes court to secure justice for the atrocities committed during Liberia’s civil wars. In a letter to the legislature, President Weah wrote: “I ... do hereby call on the National Legislature to advise and provide guidance on all legislative and other necessary measures towards the implementation of the TRC [Truth and Reconciliation Commission] report, including the establishment of the Economic and War Crimes Court.” To date, the few cases dealing with crimes committed during the Liberian civil wars have been dealt with outside of Liberia, pursuant to universal jurisdiction.

19 September 2019: The Pre-Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court has granted the request of the Prosecution to bring an appeal against its decision to block investigations into war crimes committed in Afghanistan. In April the Chamber found that it was not in the interests of justice to allow the proposed investigation, a decision for which it was heavily criticised for giving the appearance that the Court had given into political pressure from the United States.

18 September 2019: The Hague District Court in the Netherlands has held a hearing on a war crimes case against former Israeli commander Benny Gantz. The claimant is a Dutch/Palestinian man who seeks damages from the accused and a co-defendant, Amir Eshel, for their role in killing six of his relatives during the 2014 Gaza War. Counsel for the defendants argued that a Dutch court was not an appropriate forum for this matter, which should be dealt with in Israel, with the claimant’s lawyer arguing that Palestinians do not have recourse to justice in Israel. The Dutch courts may hear war crimes cases pursuant to universal jurisdiction enshrined in Dutch law, so long as the claimant cannot get a fair trial elsewhere. A decision as to whether the case can proceed is expected in January 2020.

16 September 2019: A report by the United Nations Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Syria has suggested that all parties to the ongoing conflict may have committed war crimes. It indicated that the failure of US-led coalition forces to take the necessary precautions to discriminate between military objectives and civilians during air strikes may constitute war crimes. Moreover, the campaign by the Syrian government and allied Russian forces appearing to target medical facilities, schools, markets and farmland may also constitute war crimes. Finally, Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, a jihadist group formerly known as the Nusra Front, has been accused of firing rockets indiscriminately and killing civilians.

13 September 2019: The United Nations Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar has handed over its evidence of international crimes to the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar (IIMM). The evidence has been transferred in a way to ensure its integrity for possible future use in prosecutions. The IIMM was established by the United Nations Human Rights Council Resolution 39/2 to collect, consolidate, preserve and analyse evidence of the most serious international crimes and violations of international law committed in Myanmar since 2011 and to prepare files in preparation for criminal prosecutions. The Head of the IIMM, Nicholas Koumjian, officially commenced his function on 1 July 2019.

12 September 2019: Colombian energy company EMP has been called to appear before the Colombian Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP) in relation to its role in flooding an area where prosecutors were looking for hundreds of missing persons. In 2002 the crime syndicate La Oficina de Envigado took control of the city of Medellin and hundreds of people went missing from a valley that was flooded by EMP, which is now the site of a controversial hydroelectric dam project. EMP will appear before the JEP to clarify its role in the flooding and preventing the search for the missing persons. The JEP has also ordered the inspection of two quarries in Medellin where, according to a local court, 300 people are buried. 

11 September 2019: The European Union has set up a counter-terrorism register in hopes of facilitating the prosecution of returning foreign fighters from Iraq and Syria. The database will collect information from all EU countries on ongoing investigations and prosecutions of terrorist suspects and is hoped to lead cooperation between States that will prevent suspects from escaping prosecution or being prosecuted for lesser crimes due to lack of evidence or insufficient coordination of parallel investigations, culminating in the prosecution of war crimes. It is also hoped the new tool could prevent terrorism in Europe.

9 September 2019: The lawyer representing 23 civil parties in the case relating to the 2015 Paris attacks has applied to the Paris Public Prosecutor’s Office to try the defendant Salah Abdeslam for crimes against humanity instead of terrorism offences. Abdelam is the only survivor of the attacks in Paris and Saint-Denis that left 131 dead and almost 500 injured.

6 September 2019: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court (ICC) has ordered Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda to reconsider her decision not to open an investigation into an attack by the Israeli Defence Force on a flotilla carrying humanitarian aid to the Gaza Strip in 2010. The Appeals Chamber rejected the Prosecutor's appeal of the 2015 decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber holding that the Prosecutor had made a material error in determining that the incident was not of "sufficient gravity" to warrant further action by the ICC. The Chamber acknowledged that the decision whether or not to pursue an investigation ultimately lies with the Prosecution.

5 September 2019: The trial of a Syrian national accused of committing war crimes in Syria has commenced in the Netherlands under Dutch universal jurisdiction laws. It is alleged that Ahmad al Khedr, aka Abu Khuder, is a member of the Nusra Front. He has been charged with membership of a terrorist organisation, as well as the war crime of murder in relation to the summary execution of a Syrian soldier. Al Khedr had been living in the Netherlands since 2014, where he had been granted temporary asylum.

4 September 2019: A report submitted to the United Nations by the Group of International and Regional Eminent Experts on Yemen indicates that states such as France, Iran, the United Kingdom and the United States which have supported or provided assistance to parties to the conflict in Yemen, for example through arms transfers, may be complicit in war crimes. The report outlines a host of violations committed by both sides to the conflict that may lead to criminal responsibility for war crimes, including unlawful airstrikes, the use of shelling and snipers, starvation as a method of warfare, enforced disappearance, arbitrary arrest and detention, sexual and gender-based violence, torture and other ill-treatment, hostage-taking, violations affecting children and attacks on civilians.

2 September 2019: A date has been set in January 2021 for the war crimes trial of the five men accused of planning and supporting the September 11 terrorist attacks. The trial will take place at the United States military base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, where the defendants have been held since 2006. The war crimes charges include terrorism, hijacking and almost 3,000 counts of murder.

August

30 August 2019: The Bangladesh International Crimes Tribunal has sentenced former Jamat-e-Islami supporter Md Abdus Samad Musa to death for crimes against humanity and war crimes, including the murder of 15 people, arson attacks, looting, confinement and torture during the Liberation War in Bangladesh in 1971. This decision is not final and can be appealed. To date the Tribunal has convicted 89 people, 62 of which have been sentenced to death.

28 August 2019: A German court has brought charges against a Syrian national for war crimes relating to his involvement in fighting with Islamic State against the Syrian government. The suspect is accused of posing for a picture with a severed head of what is presumed to be an opposition fighter and mocking the victim. If convicted, the suspect, who is currently imprisoned for other offences, faces an additional sentence of between 1-10 years’ imprisonment.

27 August 2019: A report released by the United Nations Independent International Fact-Finding Mission on Myanmar on sexual and gender-based violence concludes that “rape and other sexual violence have been a particularly egregious and recurrent feature of the targeting of the civilian population in Rakhine, Kachin and Shan States since 2011”. The Mission considers these grave violations to amount to war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. It considers the Tatmadaw, Myanmar’s armed forces, to be the main perpetrator of these crimes, and calls for the investigation and prosecution of senior military officials. 

26 August 2019: Jose Miguel Narvaez, former deputy director of Colombia’s former intelligence agency DAS, has requested to submit to the Colombian Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP) war crimes tribunal. Narvaez was convicted in 2018 and sentenced to 26 years’ imprisonment for involvement in the murder of journalist/comedian Jaime Garzon in 1999, and 8 years’ for his role in wiretapping perceived political opponents of former President Uribe. If Narvaez can demonstrate his sincere intention to tell the truth and provide redress to victims, his cooperation with the tribunal could lead to his early release.

23 August 2019: In a bid to halt the sale of British Weapons to Saudi Arabia, a report has been submitted to the UK government by a team of international lawyers and a Yemeni humans rights group presenting new evidence of alleged war crimes committed in Yemen by the coalition led by Saudi Arabia. In a statement, the organisations behind the report stated “[t]he coalition has continued to carry out apparently unlawful attacks throughout the course of the conflict, failed to credibly investigate, and whitewashed significant civilian harm”. 

22 August 2019: The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) has terminated proceedings against Nuon Chea following his death, in accordance with Cambodian criminal law and its own procedural rules. Chea was alleged to have been the most senior official serving in Pol Pot's regime and was convicted of crimes against humanity in 2014 and genocide in 2018. The defence argued that the proceedings relating to its appeal notice of 1 July 2019 should be considered posthumously in the interests of justice. 

21 August 2019: The United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary and arbitrary executions Agnes Callamard has expressed concerns that fair trial standards have not been accorded to a group of French nationals convicted of terrorism offences and sentenced to death in Iraq. It was reported that these individuals were subject to torture and ill-treatment whilst detained in Iraq. The Special Rapporteur has urged the French government to enter into an extradition agreement with Iraq, stating "[t]here are serious allegations that the sentences were handed down following unfair trials, with the accused having no adequate legal representation or effective consular assistance". 

20 August 2019: Testimony provided by Inês Etienne Romeu, the sole survivor of a clandestine prison known as the 'House of Death' in Petrópolis in the 1970's, could lead to the conviction of former Brazilian army Sergeant Antônio Waneir Pinheiro de Lima. De Lima had previously been found to be protected by Brazil's amnesty laws. Two out of three Federal Tribunal Judges have overturned a decision to this effect, finding that the allegations against de Lima, including rape and kidnapping, constitute crimes against humanity and are therefore not covered by the amnesty.  

19 August 2019: International Criminal Court (ICC) Pre-Trial Chamber I Judges Péter Kovács and Marc Perrin de Brichambaut have opposed the request of defence counsel for Malian militant Al Hassan Ag Abdoal Aziz Ag Mohamed Ag Mahmoud for the disqualification of Pre-Trial Chamber I on the basis of the participation of Judge Reine Alapini-Gansou. The request highlights concerns with Judge Alapini-Gansou's former positions as Commissioner for the African Commission on Human and People's Rights and Head of the Human Rights Component of the Mission de l'Union africaine pour le Mali et le Sahel (MISAHEL) affecting her impartiality in the proceedings against Al Hassan, on the basis that she had previously been involved in proceedings against the defendant "in an investigative and advisory capacity". Al Hassan is accused of committing crimes against humanity and war crimes in Timbuktu, Mali, between April 2012 and January 2013, with the request coinciding with the beginning of his confirmation of charges hearing. 

July

12 July 2019: The United Nations Human Rights Council has adopted a resolution, passed narrowly by four votes, authorising United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet to launch an investigation into alleged extrajudicial killings, enforced disappearances and Crimes Against Humanity committed by President of the Philippines Rodrigo Duterte. The official death toll from Duterte’s “war on drugs” is at 5,300, however human rights groups estimate the real figure is somewhere between 12,000-20,000.

11 July 2019: Two petitions for the disqualification of Judge Brichambaut at the International Criminal Court have been dismissed. Early this month it was reported that the Plenary of Judges determined that the evidence presented did not meet the high threshold for disqualifying a judge on grounds of impartiality. Accusations against Judge Brichambaut included that he had continued to engage in a variety of professional activities aimed at advancing the political and military interests of France and that he showed signs of bias when speaking about issues under litigation.  

10 July 2019: The trial of two Dutch alleged Islamic State militants has commenced in the District Court of The Hague’s International Crimes Chamber, sitting in Schiphol, the Netherlands. Oussama Achraf Akhlafa has been charged with war crimes allegedly committed in Iraq and Syria, including posing with a corpse and sharing images of dead victims online, as well as membership in a terrorist organisation. The second defendant, Reda Nidalha, is accused of membership of a terrorist organisation and recruiting radical jihadists via Facebook. This is the first trial in the Netherlands dealing with war crimes committed by alleged Islamic State militants.

9 July 2019: Yesterday the confirmation of charges hearing in the Al Hassan case commenced before the International Criminal Court. According to the warrant of arrest, Mr Al Hassan was allegedly a member of Ansar Dine and a de facto chief of the Islamic Police in Mali. He is alleged to have committed a number of war crimes and crimes against humanity in Timbuktu, Mali, between April 2012 and January 2013.

8 July 2019: Former Congolese rebel leader Bosco Ntaganda has been convicted before the International Criminal Court on 18 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Ituri, DRC, between 2002-2003. In the ruling, Judge Robert Fremr stated that Ntaganda was a “key leader” who gave orders to “target and kill civilians”. Ntaganda is also the first person to be convicted of sexual slavery before the International Criminal Court. 

5 July 2019: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court has requested that the Court authorise an investigation into alleged crimes against humanity committed in Bangladesh and Myanmar. The Prosecutor has conducted a preliminary examination into alleged crimes committed against the Rohingya population in Myanmar and Bangladesh and has indicated in the request that there is a reasonable basis to believe that the crimes against humanity of deportation, other inhumane acts and persecution under article 7 of the Rome Statute have been committed. In September 2018 the Court ruled that it has jurisdiction over the situation, as one element of the crime of deportation had been committed in a State Party to the Rome Statute (Bangladesh).

5 July 2019: A military court in San Diego in the United States has found Special Operations Chief Edward Gallagher, who had been accused of war crimes allegedly committed in Iraq, not guilty on a number of charges. In the high-profile case, Gallagher had been charged with first-degree murder for allegedly fatally stabbing a 17 year old ISIS militant in a US military hospital and with the attempted murder of civilians, and was acquitted on both charges. He was convicted for posing and taking a photograph with a dead body.

4 July 2019: The Iranian Center for International Criminal Law (ICICL) has filed a communication with the International Criminal Court requesting the Prosecutor to open a preliminary examination into alleged war crimes committed by the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen. The alleged war crimes highlighted in the communication include intentionally directing attacks against civilians; intentionally directing attacks against personnel, installations, material, units or vehicles involved in humanitarian assistance missions; attacks against buildings dedicated to hospitals and places where the sick and wounded are collected; and intentionally directing attacks against protected objects, including buildings dedicated to education.

3 July 2019: The High Court in Podgorica, Montenegro, has convicted former Yugoslav soldier Vlado Zmajevic of war crimes in relation to the murder of four ethnic Albanians in Zegra, Kosovo, in 1999. Zmajevic faces 14 years’ imprisonment for the war crimes of attacking the civilian population. This is the first war crimes trial in Montenegro in recent years, with only six other cases having previously been opened.

2 July 2019: West Africa is becoming a new "hotspot" for maritime piracy, according to a report released by the organisation One Earth Future. The report outlines incidents of hijacking, kidnapping, robberies and boarding attempts in a number of different regions, highlighting increases in West Africa from 54 incidents in 2015 to 112 in 2018. It indicates poverty, political instability, a lack of proper law enforcement and many lucrative targets as the reasons for this increase, with the Gulf of Guinea being the worst affected region worldwide.

1 July 2019: The Presidency of the International Criminal Court has rejected the request by Germain Katanga to revoke its previous authorization for new proceedings to go ahead against Katanga in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. After serving the sentence ordered by the ICC, Katanga has remained imprisoned in the DRC and faces trial there. His lawyer requested the Presidency revoke its authorization of these proceedings on the basis that Katanga’s fair trial rights had not been respected. The Presidency decided that whilst it did have the power to revoke its previous decision, that course of action was not warranted under these circumstances as the standard for reconsideration, that new information be presented indicating that the prosecution undermines fundamental principles of processes of the Rome Statute or otherwise affects the integrity of the Court, had not been met.


June

28 June 2019: The Secretary-General of the United Nations has released a report on the prevention of genocide. The report states that the “prevention of the crime of genocide is intrinsically connected to the prevention of crimes against humanity and war crimes” and “[c]onsequently, initiatives aiming at preventing one of the crimes will, in most circumstances, also cover the others.” It also highlights that the United Nations “must change the culture of reaction to one of prevention and be prepared to invest the necessary resources.” There is an emphasis in the report on education surrounding genocide as being a key aspect of prevention, as well as a number of recommendations for measures relating to national capacities and on raising awareness and education.

27 June 2019: Libyan warlord General Khalifa Haftar is being sued for alleged war crimes in a US Federal Court by four Libyan families. Haftar, a dual Libyan-US citizen, is accused of carrying out indiscriminate bombings in Libya, resulting in many civilian deaths. Since April, Haftar has made advances towards Tripoli with the aim of seizing power from the internationally recognised government established there by a peace agreement of 2015.

26 June 2019: International Criminal Court Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda has filed a notification indicating her intention to request authorisation to open a formal investigation into the situation in Bangladesh and Myanmar concerning the treatment of the Rohingya people. A United Nations fact finding mission concluded that mass killings and gang rape of Muslim Rohingyas had been carried out by Myanmar’s military. This notification follows a finding by the Court in September 2018 that it has jurisdiction over the situation, as one element of the crime of deportation had been committed in a State Party to the Rome Statute (Bangladesh).

25 June 2019: The ramming of a Philippine fishing boat by a Chinese vessel may boost the complaint of crimes against humanity against Chinese President Xi Jinping before the International Criminal Court, according to former Foreign Secretary Albert del Rosario. Del Rosario and former Ombudsperson and Supreme Court Justice Conchita Carpior Morales filed the complaint in March of this year on behalf of 300,000 Filipino fishermen who are the victims of Chinese activities in the South China Sea. The filing came two days before President Rodrigo Duterte withdrew the Philippines from the Rome Statute on March 17.

24 June 2019: Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions Agnes Callamard has called the murder of Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi Arabian consulate in Istanbul an international crime attracting universal jurisdiction. In a report released on the killing, she indicates that a number of arguments can be made to support the assertion that Khasoggi's killing was an international crime, including that it amounted to an act of torture or ill-treatment and that it constituted a violation of a jus cogens norm, arguing that there is no a priori legal or normative reasons why a single execution cannot constitute an international crime. Callamard has called on States to ensure that any individuals identified by an independent, impartial and effective investigation as being responsible are promptly brought to justice, as well as on United Nations Secretary General António Guterres to establish an independent expert panel to determine individual responsibility for the killing.

21 June 2019: The request made by defence counsel for Bosco Ntaganda to have Judge Kuniko Ozaki disqualified from Ntaganda’s case has been dismissed. It was argued in the request that Judge Ozaki’s concurrent service as a diplomatic ambassador for Japan “was incompatible with her judicial independence” and that a “Judge who is not independent cannot be reasonably perceived as being impartial”. The Plenary of the Judges of the International Criminal Court (ICC), consisting of Judges Perrin de Brichambaut, Herrera Carbuccia, Mindua, Schmitt, Kovács, Pangalangan, Akane, Alapini-Gansou, Prost and Aitala, held “that the Disqualification Request fails to demonstrate that the circumstances of Judge Ozaki’s tenure as Ambassador of Japan to Estonia, which had been authorised pursuant to article 40(4) of the Statute, satisfies the high threshold necessary to rebut the presumption of impartiality.”

20 June 2019: The Dutch Public Prosecution Service has announced charges against four suspects for alleged involvement in the downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH1 in July 2014. According to investigators in the Joint Investigation Team (JIT) the accused are allegedly responsible for bringing the anti-aircraft system used in the attack from Russia to eastern Ukraine. A trial in the District Court in the Hague is due to begin on 9 March 2020.

19 June 2019: The Center for Constitutional Rights, a US NGO, has filed a complaint with the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers, requesting an investigation into US interference with the International Criminal Court in relation to the request to launch an investigation in Afghanistan. The Center argues that threats made by the Trump administration, including of prosecution and denial of visas, influenced the decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber to reject the Prosecution’s request to open an investigation.  

18 June 2019: France has arrested three individuals for alleged crimes against humanity committed in Chad and Sudan between 2005-2010. Amongst them is General Mahamat Nouri, who planned a failed coup against current President of Chad Idriss Deby in 2008.

17 June 2019: Human Rights Watch has indicated that an attack by Houthi forces on a civilian airport in Saudi Arabia may constitute a war crime. 26 people were injured in the attack, and Human Rights Watch has called on Houthi forces to cease targeting civilian infrastructure. Michael Page, deputy Middle East director at Human Rights Watch stated: “Unlawful Saudi-led coalition airstrikes in Yemen never justify Houthi attacks on Saudi civilians.”  

14 June 2019: Former Congolese leader in the Patriotic Resistance Front of Ituri (FRPI) militia Germain Katanga faces a second trial in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), after serving time for his conviction by the International Criminal Court (ICC) of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Despite being due for release in 2016 Katanga remains imprisoned, with the second trial against him commencing in February 2016 and provisional release being denied. Ituri civil society president Jean-Bosco Lalo stated:  "To pursue Katanga again in the DRC after the ICC prosecutions is judicial harassment, it's unfair. We believe that Katanga has already paid for his mistakes and crimes". In January 2019 Katanga’s former legal counsel at the ICC requested the ICC Presidency to revoke its decision to authorise prosecution in the DRC.

13 June 2019: United Nations International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals President Carmel Agius has called on States to cooperate and accept 9 individuals acquitted of genocide and currently stranded in Arusha for relocation. In the bi-annual report addressed to the United Nations Security Council, President Agius indicates that “the status quo presents a humanitarian crisis that profoundly affects the fundamental rights of the nine persons”, which “threatens to cast a shadow over both the Mechanism and the United Nations more broadly.”

12 June 2019: A group of United Nations (UN) human rights experts have called for an independent investigation to be launched into alleged human rights violations in the Philippines. “We have recorded a staggering number of unlawful deaths and police killings in the context of the so-called war on drugs, as well as killings of human rights defenders.” The joint statement also expressed serious concern about the withdrawal of the Philippines from the International Criminal Court (ICC).

11 June 2019: The Office of the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court has sought leave to appeal the April decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber rejecting the request to open a formal investigation into the situation in Afghanistan. Three issues are raised in the motion, namely: the interpretation of ‘interests of justice’; the Pre-Trial Chamber’s discretion under the relevant provisions; and the Pre-Trial Chamber’s understanding of the scope of any investigation it may authorise. It is stated that all of these “issues significantly affects the fair and expeditious conduct of the proceedings”. Several victims who participated in the proceedings have also filed an appeal directly with the Appeals Chamber, on the basis of the findings of the Pre-Trial chamber on its jurisdiction and the interpretation of “interests of justice”.

7 June 2019: A report released by Kosovo’s Anti-Corruption Agency has revealed that a convicted war criminal has been working as an adviser to Kosovo President Hashim Thaci for the last four months in secret. Rrustem Mustaka was a commander in the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and was convicted of war crimes in 2013 and imprisoned for four years.

6 June 2019: Discussions on the creation of an international tribunal to prosecute fighters from the Islamic State (ISIS) are gaining momentum across Europe, in response the hundreds of European ISIS supporters and their families currently being detained by the Kurdish led Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) in Syria. However, human rights groups have raised concerns about the creation of such a tribunal, including relating to legitimacy concerns about overlooking atrocities committed by other actors in the conflict.

5 June 2019: A Canadian government inquiry has found that Canada is complicit in genocide against indigenous women. The 1,200 page report, which is the result of three years of research, has found that indigenous women are 12 times more likely to be killed or disappeared than other women in Canada and links this to deep-rooted colonialism and state inaction.

4 June 2019: The Concurring and Separate Opinion of Judge Mindua on the investigation of the situation in Afghanistan at the International Criminal Court was released late last week. The opinion states: “I fully concur with my learned two colleagues in rejecting the Prosecutor’s ‘Request for authorisation of an investigation pursuant to article 15’”. The opinion sought to clarify Judge Mindua’s opinion regarding the issues of the scope of the Pre-Trial Chamber’s authorisation of an investigation and the meaning of the expression "interests of justice".

3 June 2019: A submission by international lawyers Juan Branco and Omer Shatz to the International Criminal Court (ICC) has called for the prosecution of the EU and member states for the deaths of thousands of migrants who drowned in the Mediterranean fleeing Libya. The submission alleges that the EU, and members states such as Italy, Germany and France have committed crimes against humanity: “In order to stem migration flows from Libya at all costs … and in lieu of operating safe rescue and disembarkation as the law commands, the EU is orchestrating a policy of forced transfer to concentration camps-like detention facilities [in Libya] where atrocious crimes are committed.” No particular politicians or officials are singled out for specific responsibility, but the submission does quote diplomatic cables and comments from national leaders, such as Angela Merkel and Emmanuel Macron.

May

29 May 2019: An Amnesty International report on the “War in Raqqa” indicates that US-led coalition forces have caused the death of over 1,600 people in strikes against Islamic State in Raqqa, Syria. Amnesty claims that this has involved disproportionate and indiscriminate attacks that violate international humanitarian law (IHL), constituting war crimes. Amnesty has called on the coalition to take responsibility for the high number of civilian deaths. Separately, it has come to light that nearly 800,000 documents have been smuggled out of Syria, containing evidence of alleged war crimes committed by President Bashar al-Assad’s regime.

28 May 2019: Human Rights Watch has released a report detailing grave abuses against civilians amounting to war crimes committed by Egyptian forces in the Sinai Peninsula. The report documents the conflict in the North Sinai region that has killed and wounded thousands of individuals since 2013, based on a two year investigation. Michael Page, deputy Middle East and North Africa director at Human Rights Watch stated: “This horrific treatment of Sinai residents should be another wake-up call to countries like the US and France that heedlessly endorse Egypt’s counterterrorism efforts.”

27 May 2019: Controversy has arisen regarding statements made by US President Donald Trump that he will consider giving pardons to particular US armed forces personnel who have either been convicted of or will stand trial for war crimes. Gabor Rona, Visiting Professor of Law and Director of the Law and Armed Conflict Project at Cardozo Law School, has authored a blog post arguing that, as Commander in Chief of the US armed forces, President Trump may be committing a war crime by issuing these pardons under the principle of command responsibility, for failing to punish violations of international humanitarian law (IHL) committed by his subordinates. The International Committee of the Red Cross has also weighed in on the debate, releasing a statement on the legality of pardons for war crimes under IHL, albeit without explicitly mentioning any particular case.

24 May 2019: According to the United Nations mission to Mali, a March attack in which 157 people were killed in Ogossagou was “planned, organized and coordinated” and could amount to a crime against humanity.

23 May 2019: A Syrian national has been arrested in the Netherlands on suspicion of having committed war crimes and terrorist offences in Syria. The man is accused of acting as a commander of a terrorist Jabhat al-Nusra battalion. He will be brought before the District Court in The Hague, the court that has appointed to rule on cases concerning international crimes.

22 May 2019: The defence counsel for Bosco Ntaganda has filed a request for the disqualification of Judge Kuniko Ozaki pursuant to art 41(2) of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. In the request, it is argued that Judge Ozaki’s concurrent service as a diplomatic ambassador for Japan “was incompatible with her judicial independence” and that a “Judge who is not independent cannot be reasonably perceived as being impartial”. It is this lack of appearance of impartiality that is the basis of the request, as “[t]he appearance of a serving Ambassador of a State sitting on the bench of an ongoing case at the ICC profoundly undermines, in the eyes of an objective observer, the judicial character of the Court.” The request highlights that Judge Ozaki’s subsequent resignation from her ambassadorial post does not restore the appearance of her independence or impartiality, given the belated timing of her resignation, her failure to acknowledge that the resignation is required by the dictates of judicial independence and the negative impact on her interests because of the resignation.   

21 May 2019: The man accused of killing 51 people in the Christchurch mosques attack in New Zealand on March 15 has been charged with the offence of “engaging in a terrorist act”, in addition to facing murder and attempted murder charges. It is the first time anyone in New Zealand has been charged with this offence.  

20 May 2019: Judge Liu Daqun of the International Residual Mechanisms for Criminal Tribunals has revoked an order referring a contempt case to Serbia, after witnesses raised concerns about their safety. Vjerica Radeta and Petar Jojic were charged in 2012 with tampering with witnesses in the trial against their party leader, Vojislav Seselj. A summons has been issued for the return of Radeta and Jojic to the Hague to be tried, however they are refusing to cooperate, arguing that extradition to the Hague could only be for accusations of war crimes, not contempt of court, on the basis of a Serbian High Court ruling in 2016.

16 May 2019: Amnesty International has presented evidence suggesting the commission of war crimes in Libya and has urged the ICC Prosecutors to undertake an investigation of the situation there. According to Amnesty, eye witness testimony and satellite imagery reveals evidence of indiscriminate attacks in residential areas and attacks on migrant and refugee detention centres. “Deliberate attacks on civilians and civilian property, and indiscriminate attacks that kill or injure civilians amount to war crimes. All sides have an absolute obligation under international law to protect civilian lives and to clearly distinguish between civilians and fighters during their attacks.”

15 May 2019: Amnesty International has called on the international criminal justice system to take a “vigorous response” to crimes against humanity committed in Venezuela, including extrajudicial killings, arbitrary detentions and deaths and injuries. Americas director at Amnesty International Erika Guevara-Rosas said: “As we have been saying for years, in Venezuela there is a systematic policy of repression against opponents or those perceived to be opponents simply because they are protesting, for which Nicolás Maduro’s government must be held accountable before the international justice system”. You can read the full report here.  

14 May 2019: Sudanese prosecutors have announced that former President Omar al-Bashir has been charged in relation to the killing of protestors during demonstrations that led to his removal from government. It is reported that the prosecutor’s office indicated that al-Bashir and others have been accused of incitement and complicity in relation to these deaths. Two arrest warrants for the arrest and surrender of al-Bashir to the International Criminal Court relating to charges of crimes against humanity, genocide and war crimes remain outstanding.

13 May 2019: The United States has revoked the visas of several Colombian judges. It was reported that Counstitutional Court magistrates Antonio Lizarazo and Diana Fajardo were informed their visas were revoked, following their refusal to dine with US Ambassador Kevin Whitaker after alleging he was involved in "meddling" over the country's war crimes tribunal. This also follows criticism by the US of Colombian courts not allowing the extradition of suspects of war crimes on war trafficking charges in order to prioritize the victims of the conflict in Colombia.

10 May 2019: A Kosovo parliamentary commission has approved a draft resolution accusing Serbia of committing genocide of Albanians during the 1998-99 war. The resolution alleges that Serbians were responsible for over 270 killings and that 1,600 people still remain missing. It also proposes a Day of Commemoration of Genocide against Albanians in Kosovo, calls on Serbia to recognise that it committed genocide and crimes against humanity and requests the introduction of laws penalising justification, minimisation or denial of the genocide in Kosovo.

9 May 2019: Fatou Bensouda, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), addressed the United Nations Security Council on the progress of bringing perpetrators of international crimes in Libya to account. She stated that “the first and indispensable step” for the international community is to ensure that the outstanding arrest warrants of Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi, Mahmoud Mustafa Busayf Al-Werfalli, and Al-Tuhamy Mohamed Khaled are executed and that these suspects are transferred to the ICC for prosecution for war crimes. She emphasised that: “Such a development would send a strong and necessary message to the victims of grave crimes in Libya, that the Council and the international community at large are serious about pursing justice...and committed to taking concrete action towards that end”. Bensouda appeared before the Security Council in New York despite the previous revocation of her visa by US authorities. Conflict continues in Libya, with the United Nations most recently expressing concern in relation to airstrikes in Eastern Tripoli that led to dozens of civilian deaths.

8 May 2019: Ahmad Al Faqi Al-Mahdi has been transferred to a prison in Scotland to serve his 9 year sentence. Al-Mahdi was convicted in 2016 by Trial Chamber VIII of the International Criminal Court (ICC) after pleading guilty of the war crime of directing attacks against religious and historic buildings in Mali in 2012. He was the first accused to plead guilty at a trial before the ICC.

7 May 2019: Human Rights Watch has called on States participating in Côte d’Ivoire’s third Universal Periodic Review before the United Nations Human Rights Council to raise concerns over its failure to provide justice for victims of post-election human rights abuses that arose in 2010-2011. In August 2018 an amnesty was announced in Côte d’Ivoire for war crimes, crimes against humanity and other human rights abuses committed during this period. The West Africa Director at Human Rights Watch stated: “The lack of justice for thousands of victims of one of Côte d’Ivoire’s worst episodes of political violence is a stain on the government’s rights record and threatens the country’s peace and stability.”

6 May 2019: The International Criminal Court (ICC) Appeals Chamber has confirmed the decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber II finding that Jordan failed to comply with its obligations to arrest and surrender (now former) Sudanese President al-Bashir whilst he was present on its territory, but reversed the referral of Jordan to the Assembly of State Parties (ASP) and the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) for this failure. The Court held that as under Art. 27(2) of the Rome Statute immunities do not bar the ICC's jurisdiction and this reflects customary international law, there is therefore no immunity for Heads of State under customary international law before international courts and tribunals.

6 May 2019: The Syrian Network for Human Rights has released its monthly special report documenting notable human rights violations in April 2019 committed by the main perpetrator parties to the conflict in Syria. The report outlines that during this period there were 324 civilian deaths, 459 cases of arbitrary arrests and at least 51 attacks on civilian objects. It is suggested that Syrian-Russian forces committed extrajudicial killings, arrest, torture and enforced disappearance, as well as engaging in indiscriminate attacks and attacks on civilians amounting to war crimes. It is reported that Islamist extremist groups were also involved in such human rights violations, and that indiscriminate and disproportionate attacks by the alliance of International Coalition forces and Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces are also considered to be in violation of international humanitarian law (IHL), amounting to war crimes. The report calls on the United Nations to take a number of measures to help relieve the situation in Syria as well as refer the situation to the International Criminal Court so that perpetrators can be prosecuted.

3 May 2019: The Public Prosecutor in Sudan has ordered the interrogation of former President Omar al-Bashir on charges of money laundering and financing terrorism. The Prosecutor also indicated that other senior officials will also be investigated. Reuters also reports that the Declaration of Freedom and Change Forces (DFCF) has presented the Transitional Military Council currently in power a draft constitutional document on how it envisages future civilian rule in Sudan. This has followed continued protests since the ousting of al-Bashir demanding a civilian-led interim government.

2 May 2019: The Presidency of the International Criminal Court (ICC) has confirmed that Judge Kuniko Ozaki has resigned her post as Japanese Ambassador to Estonia. The notification issued highlights that the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs confirmed on 23 April 2019 that the resignation of Judge Ozaki was officially accepted by the Government of Japan on 18 April 2019. 

1 May 2019: Bosco Ntaganda's defence counsel has requested the disqualification of International Criminal Court (ICC) Judge Ozaki pursuant to Art. 40(2) of the Rome Statute on the basis of her appointment as Ambassador of Japan in Estonia. Ntaganda’s counsel argue that Judge Ozaki’s role as a senior Japanese diplomat in an EU State Party to the Rome Statute “creates the appearance that she is not independent”. This move has followed calls that Judge Ozaki must “resign – or be removed” in light of her diplomatic appointment following a decision by a majority of the ICC Judges in March allowing Judge Ozaki’s request to stay on as a non-full-time judge alongside her diplomatic post, as it “was not incompatible with the requirements of judicial independence”. The request by Ntaganda's counsel asks the Judges to reconsider this decision and disqualify Judge Ozaki. 

April

30 April 2019: Judge Péter Kovács of the Pre-Trial Chamber of the International Criminal Court (ICC) has postponed the confirmation of charges hearing for former Malian militant Al Hassan Ag Abdoul Aziz Ag Mohamed Ag Mahmoud. Al Hassan is accused of religious and gender-based persecution in Mali and has been charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes. A warrant for his arrest was issued on 27 March 2018 and he has been in custody since 31 March 2018 when he surrendered to the Court. The postponement from 6 May to 8 July 2019 was justified on the basis of procedural delays experienced by the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP). The OTP said that the continuing insecurity in Mali has made the collection of witness testimonies and implementing protective measures for witnesses difficult, the latter of which are required to be instituted before the identities of the witnesses can be disclosed to the defence.

29 April 2019: A Chamber of the Special Jurisdiction of Peace (JEP) in Colombia has ordered the arrest of Hernan Velasquez, also known as "El Paisa", a former commander of the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC) during the Colombian civil conflict. The order relates to the former rebel leader's failure to participate in reconciliation efforts mandated by the country’s peace deal, which was introduced in 2016 signaling the end of the conflict. In particular, Velasquez is accused of failing to provide testimony in a case relating to guerilla kidnappings, and as such he is no longer protected by the benefits of the peace agreement, such as avoiding jail time for war crimes. Velasquez has previously been sentenced to imprisonment in relation to his involvement in a 2003 car bombing in Bogota.

26 April 2019: Four former Presidents of the International Criminal Court’s Assembly of States Parties have called for an independent assessment of the Court’s functioning in the wake of the decision of the Pre-Trial Chamber rejecting the Prosecutor’s request to open an investigation into into allegations of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Afghanistan. Prince Zeid Raad al Hussein, Bruno Stagno Ugarte, Christian Wenaweser and Tiina Intelman expressed concern about the “…growing gap between the unique vision captured in the Rome Statute… and some of the daily work of the Court”, claiming that “… the powerful impact of the Court’s central message is too often not matched by its performance as a judicial institution.” 

25 April 2019: This week Ecuador’s National Assembly approved the ratification of the Kampala Amendments to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC). This makes Ecuador the 38th ICC State Party and 7th Latin American State to ratify the Amendments on the Crime of Aggression adopted in Kampala in 2010. According to Parliamentarians for Global Action the ratification “sends a clear message to the international community of Ecuador’s public commitment to international peace and accountability for international crimes and reaffirms that Latin America remains at the forefront of the rule of law.”

24 April 2019: Saudi Arabia has executed 37 people, 33 of which were part of the country’s Shi’a minority, in connection with terrorism-related crimes. It is reported that a statement by the official Saudi Press Agency indicated the men were executed “for adopting terrorist and extremist thinking and for forming terrorist cells to corrupt and destabilise security”. Amnesty International has expressed concerns about Saudi Arabia’s escalating use of the death penalty and of sham trials violating international standards and allegedly using torture evidence, stating in particular that “the death penalty is being used as a political tool to crush dissent from within the country’s Shi’a minority”.  

23 April 2019: A terrorist attack in Sri Lanka over the weekend targeting churches and hotels has caused the death of 310 victims and left a further 500 injured. The main suspect is a little-known Islamic organisation recognised for being anti-Buddhist, but which had not previously been linked to terrorism, and which is suspected of having received “international support”. A state of emergency has been called in Sri Lanka and 40 people have been arrested in connection with the attacks.

18 April 2019: A report prepared by the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) has revealed that despite evidence of reduction in the levels of torture or ill-treatment in Afghan detention centres, overall figures remain “disturbingly high”. The report is based on interviews with more than 600 detainees across 77 facilities, and shows on average almost one in three conflict related detainees provided “credible and reliable” accounts of torture or ill-treatment. The report called on the Afghan Government to take a number of measures to eradicate torture.

17 April 2019: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda, has expressed concerns over the escalating violence in Libya, stating: “I will not hesitate to expand my investigations and potential prosecutions to cover any new instances of crimes falling within the Court’s jurisdiction, with full respect for the principle of complementarity. No one should doubt my determination in this regard”. She has called on all parties to the fighting to refrain from committing war crimes and fully respect international humanitarian law, including protecting civilians and civilian infrastructure such as schools, hospitals and prisons. The Office of the Prosecutor is currently investigating several cases in relation to the Libyan situation, which was referred by the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 (2011).

16 April 2019: The President of Sudan, Omar al-Bashir, was deposed last week by the Sudanese military. A transitional military council has taken over governance of Sudan, imposing a two year transition period to be followed by elections. Demonstrations that began in December calling for the removal of al-Bashir from government have continued, with opposition groups demanding a civilian transition government be instated immediately. The transitional military council have indicated that they will accept a new prime minister chosen by opposition parties. The council has also stated that it will not extradite al-Bashir to The Hague to face the International Criminal Court, which issued two warrants for al-Bashir's arrest in 2009 and 2010 for crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide. It has been reported that instead al-Bashir may be tried domestically by Sudanese courts.

15 April 2019: The Pre-Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court has unanimously rejected the Office of the Prosecutor's request to open an investigation into allegations of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Afghanistan. In the decision, the PTC II considered the significant time that elapsed between the crimes and the request, the "scarce cooperation" during the preliminary examination and the likelihood that evidence and witnesses would be still available relevant to its ultimate finding that "the current circumstances of the situation in Afghanistan are such as to make the prospects for a successful investigation and prosecution extremely limited" and therefore "an investigation into the situation in Afghanistan at this stage would not serve the interests of justice". The PTC II also highlighted that the nature of the crimes and the context in Afghanistan mean the investigation would require "a significant amount of resources" which would have to be redirected from other situations with greater prospects of leading to trials. 

12 April 2019: The trial of a German national, identified as Jennifer W, for war crimes has commenced in Munich. The woman is accused of enslaving a five year old Yazidi girl and letting her die of thirst. The charges against her include murder, war crimes, membership in a foreign terrorist organisation and weapons violations, for which she faces a life sentence. The woman travelled to Iraq in 2013 to join ISIS and was deported back to Germany in 2016 whilst trying to renew travel documents in Turkey.   

11 April 2019: The United Nations High Commissioner of Human Rights Michelle Bachelet has warned that attacks of civilians in Libya may amount to war crimes. Libya has faced violence and instability since 2011 when leader Muammar Gaddafi was deposed and killed. It is reported that rebel leader Gen Haftar, who heads the Libyan National Army (LNA), is making advances on the capital, Tripoli, after taking control of southern Libya and its oil fields earlier this year. The Libyan Prime Minister, Fayez al-Serraj, has accused Haftar of attempting a coup to take control of the country. This Sunday there were UN-backed peace talks planned between the opposition groups, however it is no longer clear whether they will go ahead. The World Health Organization has reported that in the past 6 days there have been 56 deaths, including medical workers, another 266 people injured and thousands displaced as a result of the clashes.

10 April 2019: Romania’s former President Ion Iliescu has been charged with crimes against humanity for his role in the revolution that overthrew the communist regime in 1989. Iliescu, alongside former Deputy Prime Minister Gelu Voican Voiculescu and former Air Force Cdr Iosif Rus, has been accused of spreading misinformation to spread terror, as well as simulating a trial to summarily convict and execute communist leader Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife Elena. Approximately 862 people were killed during the revolt.

9 April 2019: Malaysia has decided to withdraw from the International Criminal Court just one month after acceding to the Rome Statute. Following the accession in March, an alliance of the United Malay National Organization (UMNO) and Parti Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) heavily criticised the government over concerns that the ICC could prosecute the King, as supreme commander of the State's armed forces, and threaten Malaysia’s sovereignty. Human Rights Watch has called on Malaysia to reverse this decision, stating it “makes a mockery of the government’s commitment to justice”.

8 April 2019: The first trial of Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) members for war crimes has commenced in Uganda. Thomas Kwoyelo has been accused of murder, rape and enslavement in the context of the Ugandan conflict from 1987-2006. He pleads not guilty to all 93 counts against him. Mr. Kwoyelo is the first LRA rebel to appear before the Ugandan International Crimes Division, which was established in 2008. 

5 April 2019: The United States has revoked the entry visa for the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Fatou Bensouda. The US Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, has stated: "If you're responsible for the proposed ICC investigation of US personnel in connection with the situation in Afghanistan, you should not assume that you will still have or get a visa, or that you will be permitted to enter the United States. We're prepared to take additional steps, including economic sanctions if the ICC does not change its course". The move is in response to the ICC's investigation into whether the US engaged in war crimes, such as torture at secret CIA-run detention sites, in Afghanistan.

4 April 2019: Amnesty International has reported that increased air strikes in Somalia by United States forces have led to civilian deaths that may constitute war crimes. The report investigates five instances in Lower Scabelle, Somalia, involving the death of 14 civilians and injuries to 8. In 2018 and in response to the Amnesty Report, the US has denied that civilians have been killed during the course of the strikes, and that all resulting deaths are members of Al-Shabaab, an armed group currently engaged in conflict with the Somali government. US Africa Command (AFRICOM) stated: "In coordination with the Federal Government of Somalia, U.S. Africa Command conducts airstrikes to defend the people of Somalia against terrorism, and to assist the Federal Government of Somalia as it works to alleviate security challenges." Amnesty International contests these claim and calls on the US to carry out effective investigations, acknowledge civilian casualties, provide victims and their families with reparations, allow for safe and accessible means for communities to self-report civilian casualties and ensure all strikes are carried out in compliance with international humanitarian law.

3 April 2019: A delegation from the United Nations Subcommittee on the Prevention of Torture (SPT) has arrived in Sri Lanka to investigate allegations of torture, which have continued since the end of the civil conflict in 2009. The delegation will meet with government bodies, the Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka and other civil society actors. This visit comes just after the United Nations Human Rights Council passed a resolution granting Sri Lanka another two years to implement processes ensuring reconciliation, accountability and human rights. Amnesty International has expressed disappointment that the resolution does not address Sri Lanka's failure to implement these processes to date. A report from human rights group Freedom from Torture states that "torture has continued in a context of ongoing security operations in post-conflict Sri Lanka, despite the new government's promise of a 'zero tolerance' policy on torture". 

2 April 2019: The Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (SUHAKAM) and Thai human rights group Fortify Rights have released a report accusing a transnational crime syndicate of committing crimes against humanity by trafficking Rohingya Muslims feeling Myanmar, as well as Bangladeshi citizens travelling to Malaysia. According to the report, between 2012 to 2015 approximately 170,00 people fled to Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand following violence in Myanmar. Traffickers are accused of murder, enslavement, imprisonment, torture, rape, starvation and forced displacement of victims during this period. Mass graves have been discovered in both Thailand and Malaysia. Thailand has convicted over 60 people for human trafficking in 2017, including 9 government officials, however according to the CEO of Fortify Rights Matthew Smith, such investigations have not occurred in Malaysia. It has been reported that human traffickers profited from between US$50 to US$100 million each year from this trade.

1 April 2019: The United Kingdom has joined forces with the Seychelles to tackle piracy in the Indian Ocean. Piracy is said to cost the international economy between $7 billion - $12 billion per year. The UK Hydrographic Office (UKHO) will assist under the Navigation, Stabilisation Advice and Training (SONSAT) program in the Seychelles. This consists of raising awareness of government officials on the existing infrastructure to deal with maritime piracy, such as the World-Wide Navigational Warning Service and the Rescue Coordination Centres. The tourism industry in the Seychelles is impacted by piracy in the region, as are the UK’s economic interests as it uses the surrounding waters for trade.


March 2019


29 March 2019: Prosecutors in Switzerland have indicted a Liberian national, Alieu Kosiah, for war crimes during the first Liberian civil war. Swiss Investigators are currently looking into a dozen other cases relating to war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity. This is the first instance of an international criminal law indictment being raised in the Swiss criminal justice system. The suspect is accused of being a former commander for the United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO) and of committing murders, rape and other activities “aimed at enslaving and terrorising the population in the Lofa County between 1993 and 1995". 

28 March 2019: A Lithuanian court has found the Soviet Union’s last defense minister, Dmitry Yazov, guilty of war crimes and has sentenced him to 10 years imprisonment in absentia. The conviction was part of a trial of over 60 former Soviet officials for a violent suppression of Lithuania’s independence movement in January 1991 that left 14 people dead and hundreds injured. Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskaite has stated: “On this historic day, justice has come. Those responsible for the death of peaceful freedom defenders have been sentenced”.

27 March 2019Eight Lebanese citizens have been charged with ‘terrorism’ in the United Arab Emirates. All are Shia Muslims, and Human Rights Watch has reported that they have been subjected to prolonged solitary confinement and denied legal representation in a trial ‘marred with violations’. The charges are yet to be made public, with UAE media reporting the group has links to Hezbollah, a group that has been categorised as a terrorist organisation by UAE.

26 March 2019: A Canadian court has ruled that the sentence of Omar Khadr, a Canadian citizen and former Guantanamo Bay detainee, has expired. Khadr was born in Canada and sent to Afghanistan by his father, a member of al-Qaeda. He was captured in 2002 at age 15, and spent the following decade at the US Guantanamo Bay detention center. He was convicted by a US military commission in 2010 of war crimes and sentenced to 8 years imprisonment, subsequently being transferred to a prison in Canada after striking a plea deal in 2012. He was released on bail in 2015 and has sued the Canadian government for violating his constitutional rights and being complicit in his detention at Guantanamo Bay, receiving a C$10.5 million settlement. 

25 March 2019: Saša Cvetković, a former member of Republika Srpska Army, has been found guilty of war crimes and convicted for the rape of two women and the murder of two civilians in a village near Srebrenica in 1992. He was sentenced to 12 years imprisonment and ordered to pay compensation of 15,000 BAM to one of the sexual violence victims. This is the 13th case where victims of sexual violence during conflict have been awarded compensation before the courts in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

22 March 2019: The United Nations Human Rights Council condemned Israel for human rights violations, including war crimes, regarding the IDF’s response to the violent riots at the Israel-Gaza border during the Great Return March, which began exactly a year ago. The Council adopted a UN report which investigated the killings of 189 demonstrators, including 35 children, in Gaza between the 30th of March and the 31st of December, 2018. The report says: “The commission found reasonable grounds to believe that individual members of the Israeli security forces, in the course of their response to the demonstrations, killed and gravely injured civilians who were neither directly participating in hostilities nor posing an imminent threat.” 
The report was instantly denounced as “biased” and “anti-semitic” by Israel and its closest allies.

21 March 2019: According to a new report of Amnesty International, the United States may have committed war crimes as it bombed al-Shabab militants in Somalia. Researchers for Amnesty International investigated five U.S. airstrikes and found that they had resulted in 14 civilian deaths. They found that the airstrikes killed farmers, women and an eight-year-old girl, whom the group assessed had no ties to al-Shabab. "Due to the nature of the attacks, the U.S. government is violating international humanitarian law and these violations may amount to war crimes", said a researcher working for the group.

20 March 2019: The UN International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals Appeals Chamber has updeld Radovan Karadzic conviction and sentenced him to life prison.
Judge Vagn Prüsse Joensen, the presiding judge of the Appeals Chamber, said an earlier prison term of 40 years (handed down in 2016) "inadequately reflected" the gravity of the crimes. Karadzic was found guilty of genocide and nine other counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity for his actions in the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

19 March 2019: The withdrawal of the Philippines from the Rome Statute, the founding treaty of the ICC, became effective as of 17 March 2019. However, it will not impact any on-going consideration of alleged crimes against humanity committed before the withdrawal entered into force. Should any further similar crimes be committed after 17 March 2019, the ICC will not have jurisdiction.

18 March 2019: Mike Pompeo, Secretary of State of the USA said the United States will withdraw or deny visas to any International Criminal Court personnel directly responsible for investigating possible war crimes by US forces or allies in Afghanistan. The Trump administration already threatened in September to ban  ICC judges and prosecutors from entering the US and sanction funds they have there if the court launched a probe of war crimes in Afghanistan. In November 2017, the ICC prosecutor requested authorization from judges to initiate an investigation into alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity in Afghanistan since May 1, 2003, including in states where the CIA held prisoners.

15 March 2019: Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic will face the IRMCT's Appeals Chamber on Wednesday for a ruling that will end one of the highest profile legal battles stemming from the Balkan wars of the 1990s. Karadzic, 73, was sentenced to 40 years in prison in 2016 after being convicted of genocide for the July 1995 Srebrenica massacre. Prosecutors are seeking a life sentence and a second genocide conviction for his alleged role in a policy of targeting non-Serbs across Bosnia in the early years of the war while Karadzic is appealing against his conviction.

14 March 2019: Reporters Without Borders said Tuesday it had asked the International Criminal Court to investigate the murders of 102 journalists in Mexico from 2012 to 2018. According to the secretary general of Reporters Without Borders, Christophe Deloire, these crimes against humanity (constitute) a generalized and systematic attack on a civilian population: journalists.

13 March 2019:  Guatemalan lawmakers are moving forward with a proposal to grant amnesty for war crimes committed during the country’s brutal 36-year civil war. The bill would free more than 30 former army officers, soldiers and civil defense patrolmen within 24 hours and halt investigations into thousands of cases. Backers of the amnesty say they are simply trying to move on and promote peace. But for victims and their families, the bill is a denial of justice and a negation of history.

12 March 2019: Jean-Pierre Bemba, former vice-president and rebel leader in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), is seeking 69 millions of euros in compensation from the International Criminal Court after being acquitted of war crimes by the Appeals Chamber last June. The payment sought from the ICC also includes compensation for legal costs and losses in the value of assets frozen by the court while he was in prison. If awarded, the money will "provide reparations to the people of the Central African Republic".

11 March 2019: A New York Federal Court Judge has dismissed a case against Germany relating to the alleged genocide in Namibia in the early 1900s. The claim was brought in relation to allegations of colonial German troops killing of tens of thousands of Herero and Nama people in what was then called German South West Africa under an extermination order issued by German General Lothar von Trotha. The case was dismissed as inadmissible on the basis of the principle of sovereign immunity making prosecution of Germany impossible. Lawyers representing the plaintiffs have stated that they intend to appeal the decision.

8 March 2019: A report released by several human rights groups has highlighted the role of the United States and Europe in alleged war crimes committed in Yemen. The report, entitled ‘Day of Judgment: The Role of the US and Europe in Civilian Death, Destruction, and Trauma in Yemen’, highlights the humanitarian crisis that has evolved in Yemen in light of the Saudi and UAE led war on Houthi rebels. According to the report, 4 years into the conflict approximately 20,000 civilians have been killed or wounded and half the population faces famine.

7 March 2019: Two legal teams have called on the International Criminal Court (ICC) to investigate crimes against humanity allegedly committed by Syrian Presiden Bashar al-Assad. The legal teams have suggested that the jurisdiction decision of the ICC on the situation of the Rohingyas in Myanmar in 2018 may be a basis for which Syria can be prosecuted, despite not being party to the Rome Statute. The case was submitted to the Office of the Prosecutor on behalf of 28 Syrian refugees in Jordan who have been forcibly displaced.

6 March 2019: On Monday March 4 Malaysia acceded to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. The President of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute, Mr. O-Gon Kwon stated, "[t]his commitment sends a strong signal to the Asia-Pacific region and the world, reinforcing the independent system of international criminal justice to fight impunity and prevent the most serious crimes under international law." Global Parliamentarians for Action have applauded this decision, highlighting that Malaysia is now "the 124th State Party to the first permanent judicial institution having jurisdiction over genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression."

5 March 2019: It has been reported that Pakistan will lodge a complaint against India at the United Nations, claiming India has engaged in 'eco-terrorism' in relation to the damage of pine trees during Indian air strikes in Pakistani territory on February 26. India has stated that it engaged in a pre-emptive airstrike against a militant terrorist group. The strike follows a suicide bombing in which 40 Indian security personnel were killed earlier this month.

4 March 2019: Croatia has confirmed the release of former Bosnian Croat battalion commander Marko Radic last December. Radic was convicted of Crimes Against Humanity by the Bosnian State Court in Sarajevo in 2011, where he was given a 21 year sentence for involvement in setting up prisons and ordering the arrest and unlawful detention of Bosniak civilians in Mostar. Radic had been transferred to Croatia, where his sentence was reduced to 12.5 years by a court in Zabreb on the basis that the Croatian domestic legal system does not recognise Joint Criminal Enterprise as a mode of liability.

1 March 2019: A United Nations commission of inquiry has reported on violence on the border of Israel and Gaza during mass protests in 2018, claiming Israeli forces may have committed crimes against humanity. The panel accused Israeli forces of killing and injuring demonstrators not posing an imminent threat of death or serious injury to others, nor participating in hostilities. The Israeli Foreign Ministry released a statement blaming the militant group Hamas for the violence and claiming the UN report is a product of anti-Israeli bias. The panel has called on Israel to investigate all protest-related injuries and deaths in accordance with international standards to determine if crimes against humanity or war crimes have been committed.

February 2019

28 February 2019: The US District Court for Eastern Pennsylvania has recently found that claims which involve war crimes and crimes against humanity that were committed within Liberia can be brought in US courts under the Alien Tort Statute. The plaintiffs’ are survivors of the July 1990 St. Peter’s Lutheran Church Massacre, with the Court finding Alien Tort Statute claims sufficiently “touch and concern” the US to “displace the presumption against extraterritorial application”.


27 February 2019: Prosecutor of the ICC Fatou Bensouda has requested the Court to dismiss the appeal filed by Jean-Pierre Bemba on the grounds that the penalty imposed upon him for witness tampering was "a manifestly excessive and disproportionate sentence". In September 2018, the ICC fined Jean-Pierre Bemba 300,000 euros and sentenced him to 12 months for witness tampering during his War Crimes trial. In a statement, Bensouda said that "[the Court] should not be asked to displace judicial certainty in favour of devoting countless time and resources to frivolous and obscure litigation."

26 February 2019: The Lima Group has requested the International Criminal Court (ICC) to assess the current crisis in Venezuela. On 5 January Juan Guaido was elected as president of the opposition-controlled National Assembly, which all other government branches refused to recognise. Over 50 States recognise Guaido, with incumbent President Maduro characterising his move for power as a coup staged by the US. The statement by the Lima Group indicated "[w]e have decided to turn to the International Criminal Court with a request to take into account the grave humanitarian situation in Venezuela, the criminal violence of [Venezuelan President] Nicolas Maduro's regime against civilians and the denial of access to international aid, which is a crime against humanity".

25 February 2019: The International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals has announced it will rule on the appeal of convicted war criminal Radovan Karadžić on 20 March, 2019. In March 2016, Karadzic was found guilty of genocide relating to the 1995 Srebrenica massacre, crimes against humanity and war crimes including persecution, extermination, murder, deportation, forcible transfer, terror, unlawful attacks of civilians and hostage-taking and was sentenced to 40 years imprisonment.

22 February 2019: The United Nations Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan, in a report it will submit to the Human Rights Council next month, detailed continuing war crimes and crimes against humanity, and intensifying repression by the country’s security services. The report emphasized the role of South Sudan’s oil industry as “a major driver for the violations of International Humanitarian Law witnessed there.”

21 February 2019: On 20 February 2019, the International Criminal Court Pre-Trial Chamber II decided to join the cases of Mr. Alfred Yekatom and Mr. Patrice-Edouard Ngaïssona allegedly responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in the Central African Republic. The Chamber also scheduled the hearing on the confirmation of the charges in the joint case for 18 June 2019.

20 February 2019: A Swedish court has convicted a man who fought against the Islamic State group in Iraq of war crimes for posting macabre pictures and videos on Facebook. The asylum-seeker, who arrived in Sweden in late 2015 with his wife and two children, has confessed to being in the pictures but denied committing war crimes

19 February 2019:  Switzerland's Federal Court has rejected the opposition to a recently-unveiled monument commemorating the Armenian genocide in Geneva. opposition from Turkey also made the monument a diplomatic headache into which the federal government was forced to wade. The #genocide was recognized by the parliament of Geneva in 2001 and by the Swiss federal parliament in 2003.

18 February 2019: FBI is dismantling a special unit that investigates international war crimes. The unit has had a hand in many high-profile prosecutions including the Liberian warlord Thomas Woewiju. The dismantling of the unit raises concerns on the enforcement of human rights law putting in jeopardy prosecutions.

15 February 2019: FARC leader Rodrigo Londoño, “Timochenko,” testified before Colombia’s war crimes tribunal about his involvement in mass kidnapping during the armed conflict. As a result of the peace process, 5,000 of the 7,000 active FARC members have been granted amnesty. The rest, including alleged war criminals like Timochenko, will have to stand trial in the Jurisdicción Especial para la Paz for crimes against humanity.

14 February 2019: The government of Israel has asked a Dutch court to dismiss war crimes allegations against Benny Gantz, an ex-military chief who is challenging Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu in the April 9 election. A Dutch-Palestinian man originally from the Gaza Strip is suing Gantz and Israel's former air force chief, Amir Eshel, for their roles in an airstrike on his family's home that killed six relatives. An internal Israeli military investigation determined the airstrike had killed four militants. It said the attack was permissible under international law, and argued the Dutch court does not have jurisdiction.

13 February 2019: According to the UN Human Rights Commission, the United States may be violating the UN Convention Against Torture by force-feeding immigrant detainees on a hunger strike inside an El-Paso detention facility. This would constitute “ill-treatment” as stated under the Convention. Force-feeding also raises ethics issues for medical professionals working inside ICE facilities. World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo, states that when prisoners refuse food and physicians believe they are capable of "rational judgment concerning the consequences of such a voluntary refusal of nourishment, he or she shall not be fed artificially."

12 February 2019: Matthew Goldsteyn, a captain and a US Army Special Forces soldier, is investigated for war crimes allegedly committed in Afghanistan in 2010. The case was initially closed in Nov 2013, when the Army did not find enough evidence to prosecute him.

11 February 2019: Military activity has increased in Myanmar since early January. Reportedly, detention of civilians, blocking of aid and firing the villages take place in northern part of the country.

8 February 2019: The publication of a memo by Radio France and Mediapart, suggests that French intelligence, DGSE, knew about the attack on the plane carrying the Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana, a Hutu, which is considered the event that triggered the genocide that killed 800,000 people. It also establishes that this attack must have been premeditated for a long time by Hutu extremists.

7 February 2019: The Guatemalan Congress votes to reform national reconciliation law and give absolute impunity for crimes against humanity including genocide and rape. Michelle Bachelet, the nited Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, said it is a "drastic step backwards for rule of law and victims' rights".

6 February 2019:The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Executive Director Yury Fedotov noted in the UNSC that piracy and criminal activities on the high seas are becoming 'increasingly sophisticated', posing 'immediate danger to people's lives and safety'. He also elaborated upon the links between piracy, terrorism and illegal trafficking.

5 February 2019: The United Nations SG Antonio Guterres noted on Monday that there is a rise in the number of mercenaries, who contribute, among all, to terrorism and transnational crime. He stated also that the activities of the mercenaries 'evolved over the years'. Further, at the United Nations Security Council meeting presided by Teodoro Obiang Nguema from Equatorial Guinea, Obiang mentioned '...mercenary groups continue to act with total impunity in Africa'.

4 February 2019: Laurent Gbagbo, the former President of the Ivory Coast and the first former head of state tried at the International Criminal Court, was released from custody. The release follows his acquittal on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes.

1 February 2019: The Appeals Chamber of ICC has ordered today the conditional release of Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé based on the condition that they live in an (yet to be specified) country pending the appeal of the prosecution. They were being prosecuted for four counts of crimes against humanity.

January 2019

30 January 2019: President Rodrigo Duterte has advocated for legislation that will lower the legal age of criminal responsibility in the Philippines to 12 years old. He initially wanted it to be 9 years old. This legislation is currently being debated at the Parliament. This decision comes in the context of Duterte's 'drug war' which is currently under preliminary investigation by the ICC for crimes against humanity.

29 January 2019: New details related to Edward R. Gallagher, a Navy SEAL (the USA) who was charged with a number of war crimes became known during the last hearing at the Naval Base San Diego last week. Additionally, immunity has been granted to seven Navy SEALs to testify for the Prosecution during the trial on the 19 February.

28 January 2019: Omar al-Bashir, the President of Sudan, indicted for alleged genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, remains at large. Nonetheless, he is facing protests against his rule across the country, including in the regions usually loyal to the President. As noted by an analyst Khalid al-Tijani '...the crisis has reached a new level'.

24 January 2019: Patrice-Edouard Ngaïssona was transferred from France, where he was arrested, to the International Criminal Court custody yesterday. He is charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes allegedly committed against Séléka group in CAR.

23 January 2019:  13,200 individuals charged or convicted of treason or terrorism have been pardoned in Ethiopia. Critics stated that the anti-terrorism law in that country de facto criminalised dissent or opposition.

22 January 2019:  According to a report submitted to the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on the 2018 protests in the Occupied Palestinian Terrirory by Defense for Children International - Palestine and the City University of New York, Israeli forces and officials are responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity for the killing of Palestinian child protesters in Gaza. The report establishes proof children did not present any imminent, mortal threat or threat of serious injury.

21 January 2019: The International Criminal Court AC decided that Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé are to remain in custody. The decision follows an appeal by the Prosecutors, submitted against the TC's decision to release both individuals after their acquittal regarding crimes against humanity.

18 January 2019: In Bogotá, 21 people were killed and at least 68 injured in an attack which was described by President Iván Duque as a 'crazy terrorist act'. Car bombs were not unusual during the long-lasting conflict in that country, but no such attack took place within the last nine years.

17 January 2019: The International Criminal Court Trial Chamber I, by majority, Judge Herrera Carbuccia dissenting, found that there were no exceptional circumstances preventing the release of Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé from ICC detention following their acquittal for crimes against humanity. The ICC Prosecutor may appeal this decision. It would be then for the Appeals Chamber to decide whether or not to maintain Mr Gbagbo and Mr Blé Goudé in ICC custody.

16 January 2019:  A terrorist attack on a hotel complex has been claimed by the group Al-Shabaab, an Al-Qaida affiliated terrorist group.The same group was responsible for several attacks such as the Westgate shopping mall attack in 2013 and the Garissa University attack in 2015. The Nairobi attack shows that al-Qaeda’s east African affiliate retains the capability of bringing that form of urban terrorism to states beyond the Somali border.

15 January 2019: The ICC, by majority with a dissenting opinion of Judge Herrera-Carbuccia, has decided to acquit Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé for crimes against humanity. According to the court, the prosecution has failed to provide enough proof beyond a reasonable ground. The Court will reconvene tomorrow at 10am, as Senior Trial Attorney Eric Mcdonald has decided to avail himself of the possibility of appeal stated under article 81 of the Rome Statute.

14 January 2019:  The Helsinki District Court has found a corporal in the Iraqi army, guilty of committing war crimes. Indeed, according to the court, he was handed an 18-month suspended sentence for desecrating and violating the dignity of a dead body, which constitute war crimes under international law. In casu, the soldier had decapitated the body of an ISIS militant.

11 January 2019:  On Tuesday 15 January, the Trial Chamber 1 of the International Criminal Court will deliver a long-awaited decision for Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé-Goudé. The Chamber will determine whether to release them or not. Gbagbo has spent 7 years in detention accused of four counts of crimes against humanity and his defence team claims there is not enough evidence to proceed with the trial.

10 January 2019: The United Nations' Working Group on Arbitrary Detention published a report in which it accused Bahrain of arbitrarily arresting three members of the family of Sayed Alwadaei, an activist of the Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy, without a warrant and a fair trial. According to the Working Group, this is not the first time Bahrain has arbitrarily detained people and declares that the systematic deprivation of citizens' liberty may constitute crimes against humanity.

9 January 2019: At least four cases are being prepared to be brought in The Netherlands regarding the war in Syria. Basing on the principle of Universal Jurisdiction, the Syria Legal Network - NL is attempting to obtain damages on behalf of Syrian citizens for their pain and suffering.

8 January 2019: A US citizen of Bangladeshi origin, Monir, has been arrested and accused of "killings, confinement, rape, arson and looting" cases during the 1971 war of independence of Pakistan. He will be tried by the widely criticised International Crimes Tribunal, a national court established by Bangladesh in 2010 to prosecute those accused of war crimes in 1971.

7 January 2019: The Helsinki Court of Appeals denied a request for early release of Pastor Francois Bazaramba from his life imprisonment. Bazaramba was convicted in 2012 for his role in the 1994 Tutsi genocide.

4 January 2019: Eight individuals were charged with war crimes in Bosnia and Hercegovina. The charge is related to ill-treatment of twenty Serbs, which included sexual assault, severe physical and mental injuries as well as other acts, which may amount to torture.

3 January 2019: Special Warfare Operator Chief Edward Gallagher will be arraigned Friday at Naval Base San Diego on a long list of criminal charges including war crimes. Prosecutors argued that Gallagher had allegedly killed civilians with his sniper rifle as well as conducted the premeditated murder of a prisoner of war.

2 January 2019: On Monday, the Court of Appeal of Paris has ordered the extradition of Patrice-Edouard Ngaissona. He is suspected of committing war crimes in Central African Republic. He was allegedly in charge of coordinating the anti-balaka militias, accused of human rights abuses including mass killings and mutilation.


December 2018

21 December 2018: On Thursday, a German Federal Court overturned the conviction of Ignace Murwanashyaka, former president of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, an ethnic Hutu militia. He was previously sentenced to 13 years in prison as an accessory to war crimes in Eastern Congo as well as of leading a terrorist organization. His case was sent for a retrial due to legal errors in the reasoning of the original verdict.


20 December 2018:The International Criminal Court is carrying out a preliminary examination of the situation in The Philippines to decide whether the 'war on drugs' there can constitute a crime against humanity. 5,050 persons were killed between July 2016 and November 2018, mostly by the police.

19 December 2018: Less than a month ago two Khmer Rouge leaders were convicted of genocide. However, it has been discovered that Victor Koppe, a defense counsel for Nuon Chea (one of the convicted men), was not a member of the Amsterdam Bar Association, as his membership had lapsed. In the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, each defendant's lawyers must be members of the bar in their home country. It is unclear at this point as to how the finding may affect the case, which is now on appeal.

18 December 2018: On Monday, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution by consensus in which it expressed serious concern at reports of torture, detention, rape, public executions, the imposition of the death penalty and "collective punishments extending up to three generations". These are widespread, systematic and gross human rights violations. The resolution also acknowledges the findings of the UN Commission of Inquiry on North Korea which gathered enough evidence of the commission of crimes against humanity.

17 December 2018: The Chief Prosecutor of the UN International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals, Serge Brammertz, stated that Croatia's no-cooperation policy with regard to certain war crimes leads to a deadlock as it comes to investigation and prosecution. Croatia refuses to collaborate with the neighbouring countries in situations when the indictments state that the suspected persons took part in a joint criminal enterprise with Croatian military or political officials.

14 December 2018: On Thursday, the US House of Representatives passed a resolution with a vote of 394 to 1 declaring that the crimes committed against the Rohingya constitute genocide. This comes at a time when the UN has called for Myanmar's generals to face an international tribunal on charges of genocide.

13 December 2018: Patrice-Edouard Ngaïssona faces surrender to the International Criminal Court for alleged coordination of attacks on the Muslim population in the CAR in 2013 and 2014, which could amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity. Ngaïssona is currently a committee member of the Confederation of African Football.

12 December 2018: The Chief Prosecutor of the MICT, Serge Brammertz, has published a new report in which he denounces the lack of cooperation from the Croatian government as well as the blocking of several war crimes cases. In fact, in 2015, the Justice Ministry of Croatia said it will not provide court cooperation in cases.

11 December 2018: The Institute for Economics and Peace in Sydney published the Global Terrorism Index, which indicates that deaths caused by terrorism have fallen in the last three years. Ten States most affected by terrorism were all involved in a conflict and together they accounted for 84% of the terrorism-caused casualties. 

10 December 2018: Today marks the 70th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Universal Declaration emerged from the horrors of World War II, which resulted in more than 65 million deaths, including six million Jews and hundreds of thousands of others who were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Stunned by this carnage, the UN’s framers created an organization with three core objectives: advancing collective security, promoting economic development in poorer countries, and, for the first time, making the protection of human rights a global priority. The UN adopted the declaration on December 10, 1948, by a vote of 48-0, with eight abstentions. Eleanor Roosevelt, who led the effort, called it a “Magna Carta for all mankind.”

7 December 2018: A UN team (UNITAD) will begin investigating possible genocide of the Yazidi minority, alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity committed by ISIS. The UNSC decided to bring to justice the ISIS fighters responsible for alleged atrocities in a resolution from September 2017.

6 December 2018: According to the Annual Report on Preliminary Examinations activities of the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC, the ICC continues the thorough factual and legal assessment of the Philippines' drug war in which President Rodrigo Duterte and other senior government officials are accused of promoting the killing of suspected drug users/dealers. 

5 December 2018: War crimes prosecutor Stephen Rapp stated that although the evidence of war crimes is often hard to find, in case of Syria there is very strong evidence. For instance, over 750,000 pages of the regime's documents have been accessed. The information collected points in the direction of war crimes more clearly than in case of any other conflict after the World War 2, including in Rwanda and Liberia. 

4 December 2018: Public International Law & Policy Group, a law firm specialized in international law, has found sufficient evidence that genocidecrimes against humanity and war crimes have been committed against the Rohingya and urges the international community to establish a criminal investigation.

3 December 2018: A Bosnian court in Sarajevo acquitted Naser Oric of war crimes. He was charged with killing Serbs in villages in vicinity of Srebrenica in 1992, a few years before the Srebrenica genocide.

November 2018
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30 November 2018: The UN International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals received complaints about alleged mistreatment of two Serbs, Milosevic and Martic, serving sentences for war crimes in Estonia. They could serve their sentences in Serbia, but such a decision is subject to the approval of the United Nations Security Council.

29 November 2018: Argentina decided to prosecute Mohammed bin Salman, Saudi Arabia's crown prince, over alleged war crimes in Yemen. The Saudi leader arrived to Argentina in order to attend G20 summit in Buenos Aires.

28 November 2018: Santos López Alonzo was sentenced by a Guatemalan court for over 5,000 years of imprisonment. His sentence consists of 30 years for crimes against humanity and additional 30 years for every one of 171 victims of the massacre in the village Dos Erres, which took place on 7 December 1982.

27 November 2018: A 95-year-old man alleged to have been a guard at a Nazi concentration camp Mauthausen has been charged with over 36,000 counts of serving as an accessory to murder. It is yet another charge related to Nazi war crimes. Earlier this month a former SS man was put on trial in Germany.

26 November 2018:Alfred Yekatom, suspected of war crimes and crimes against humanity, appeared before the International Criminal Court for the first time. Defence lawyer Xavier-Jean Keita raised a point that Yekatom was subjected to torture back in CAR but Judge Antoine Kesia-Mbe Mindua noted that these allegations cannot be dealt with immediately. An official hearing to confirm Yekatom's charges will take place on 30 April 2019.

23 November 2018: Charles Bandora appealed his 30-year sentence for genocide in the Supreme Court in Kigali, Rwanda. He was found guilty by the High Court Specialised Chamber for International Crimes in May 2015. The appeal concentrates on the fact that, according to Bandora's lawyers, there was not enough evidence for a conviction.

22 November 2018: The Trump Administration is considering naming Venezuela a State sponsor of terrorism. Analysts highlighted that in consequence the US will reduce its capacity to provide humanitarian help to those under Maduro's rule.

21 November 2018: A lawsuit was filed in a Paris court against Abu Dhabi Crown Prince when he visited France. He was accused of war crimes, complicity in torture and inhumane treatment. The alleged crimes were to take place in Yemen.

20 November 2018: The Civil Society Group from Kosovo filed 61 complaints to the Special Prosecution in Pristina. The complaints concern alleged war crimes committed by Serbs in Gjakova/Djakovica during the 1998-1999 war. This is the seventh time that activists from the municipality file criminal complaints to prosecutors. 

19 November 2018: Alfred Yekatom ('Rambo') has been handed over to the International Criminal Court - ICC. He is allegedly responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity which were to take place in the Central African Republic between December 2013 and August 2014.

16 November 2018: Two leaders of Khmer Rouge (Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan), the most senior ones out of those still alive today, have been found guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity, which took place between 1977 and 1979. Regardless of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia decision the two men were already serving life sentences for crimes against humanity.

15 November 2018: The Kosovar Court of Appeals upheld the verdict that Fatmir Limaj, the current Deputy PM of Kosovo, should be acquitted of war crimes charges. The charges concerned killings of two Albanian civilians during the Kosovo War, when Limaj was a commander of the Kosovo Liberation Army.

14 November 2018: Over a dozen of Russian veteran organisations are intending to call the International Criminal Court - ICC to investigate the use of mercenaries by Russia in Syria and a number of other States, in relation to alleged war crimes committed.

13 November 2018: The US decided to stop refueling of Saudi-led coalition aircraft used in Yemen. There is a number of war crimes that allegedly took place during the conflict in Yemen. More than 10,000 people have been killed and over 2 million have been displaced. In addition, widespread famine prevails in the country.

12 November 2018: Myanmar and Bangladesh are about to repatriate thousands of the Rohingya people. The transfer is to take place despite of the UN's and the Rohingya's opposition. Recently, a UN fact-finding mission described the violent campaign against Rohingya as genocide.

9 November 2018: The courts and prosecution offices in Bosnia and Hercegovina made it harder for journalists to access information about, among all, war crimes trials. The law still states that trials are publicly accessible but since 2012 transparency has decreased following the Agency for the Protection of Personal Data's instruction that data concerning trials should not be published automatically. 

8 November 2018: 202 mass graves with up to 12,000 corpses have been discovered so far in Iraq. The UN stated that they may serve as evidence of crimes committed by ISIS. The collection of evidence on genocidewar crimes or crimes against humanity started in August 2018.

7 November 2018: A 94-year-old German appeared in a court for a trial regarding his alleged assistance in murdering hundreds of individuals at a Nazi concentration camp. He is tried in a youth court because he was under 21 when the alleged war crimes took place.

6 November 2018: France has issued arrest warrants for three top Syrian security chiefs for their alleged involvement in war crimescrimes against humanity, torture, forced disappearances. Earlier this year, in June, Germany issued a similar arrest warrant for a Syrian airforce intelligence official. Prosecuting members of the Assad government is especially difficult as Syria has not signed the Rome Statute.

5 November 2018: Fatou Bensouda, the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, stated in her last speech to the UN Security Council that her office keeps the position that Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi should be arrested. It is despite his call to declare the arrest warrant inadmissible.The international arrest warrant for the son of the Lybian dictator and a former de facto Prime Minister was issued in June 2011. He is charged with crimes against humanity.

2 November 2018: Yesterday the UN Human Rights Committee published its findings on Sudan. It noted with concern that Sudan failed to bring to justice 'Sudanese nationals and officials on charges of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes' within its national system, or let the International Criminal Court prosecute these individuals. 

1 November 2018: Germany, following an appeal, reopened a war crimes case against two suspected leaders of a rebel group, Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR). Prosecuting lawyers stated that the two men should be given longer sentences. Before, they were sentenced to 13 and 8 years of imprisonment.

October 2018

31 October 2018: Jack Smith, the chief prosecutor of the Kosovo Specialist Chambers and Specialist Prosecutor's Office, visited Kosovo for the first time since taking his post. The court is investigating war crimes, which took place during the Kosovar independence war in the late 90s.

30 October 2018: A former officer in the Afghanistan army was charged with war crimes by German prosecutors. The man allegedly took part in abuse of prisoners. The suspect was arrested near Munich on October 25.

29 October 2018: A publishing house which is part of the Serbian Defence Ministry published a book about the 1999 NATO military campaign in Kosovo. The book was written by Nebojsa Pavkovic, a former commander of the Yugoslav Army’s Third Battalion, who is now serving a 22-year prison sentence for war crimes.

26 October 2018: The case of a person who has sent ten packages containing explosive materials to certain Democrats, Donald Trump critics and CNN New York offices is treated as a case of domestic terrorism. The manhunt for the sender is ongoing.

25 October 2018: Pursuant to the UN, genocide of the Rohingya is still ongoing in Myanmar. Thousands of people are fleeing the country, according to the chair of the UN fact-finding mission there. The UN special investigator on human rights in Myanmar noted that the Rohingya need 'freedom of movement, access to basic health services'. She noted that 'repatriation is not possible now'.

24 October 2018: Two members of the US Navy SEAL were accused of war crimes. Lt. Jacob 'Jake' Portier faces a charge in relation to aiding covering up a number of alleged war crimes committed by a Special Operations Chief Edward 'Eddie' Gallagher. Both men are, among all, allegedly linked to an execution of an ISIS detainee, which took place last year.

23 October 2018: The UN accused a South Sudanese armed group called Sudan People's Liberation Army - in Opposition of crimes against humanity. The crimes were allegedly committed in the Western Equatoria region. What is especially disappointing, according to the Secretary-General and Head of UNMISS David Shearer, is the fact that the violence of the group escalated during the peace agreement negotiations. 

22 October 2018: Upon a request from the UN, a Sri Lankan commander will be recalled from his mission with the UN peacekeeping contingent in Mali. He is suspected to be responsible for alleged war crimes committed during the Sri Lankan civil war, which ended in 2009.

19 October 2018: A CE and a chairman of a Swedish company Lundin Oil are accused of complicity in alleged war crimes that took place in Sudan in the 2000s. The company is suspected of providing financial support to several militias and the Sudanese army.

18 October 2018: Former prisoners of ''re-education" camps in Xinjiang region in China state that torture, rape and killings take place there. The dominant group of inmates in the camps are Muslim Uyghurs. The detention is supposed to force them to abandon their religion and support the Chinese Communist Party.

17 October 2018: For the first time, the Public Prosecution Service in The Netherlands decided to pursue legal action against a Dutch jihadi allegedly guilty of a war crime. The trigger for such an action was that the man posted a photo on social media of himself smiling next to an individual who had been crucified.

16 October 2018: Several thousands Croats took part in protests in Vukovar demanding bringing to justice perpetrators of the war crimes committed during the 90s war. The protest had also allegedly other political motives.

15 October 2018: The new counter-terrorism bill in the UK poses a risk to free speech and access to information. In the light of this, the cross-party joint committee proposed 29 changes to the bill. The security minister Ben Wallace claimed that a proposal for changes is disappointing, as the measures in the bill are ''necessary, proportionate and compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights".

12 October 2018: A former Bosnian army commander Atif Dudakovic and 16 others were charged with war crimes which took place during the 1992-1995 war. The accused are allegedly responsible for murdering over 300 Serbs, mostly elderly civilians

11 October 2018: French Polynesia filed a claim at the ICC for alleged crimes against humanity, for which it wants to held accountable all the living French presidents. The claim is related to nuclear tests conducted on islands belonging to French Polynesia.

10 October 2018: Rwanda has a new penal code, which for the first time holds institutions accountable for crimes against humanity and genocide. Any institution or company supporting crimes against humanity or genocide will face dissolution.


9 October 2018: Michèle Coninsx, the Executive Director of the UNCTED, briefed the UNSC noting that there is an increasing involvement of the terror groups in criminal activities. Likewise, criminal groups more often offer their services, such as counterfeiting, to terror groups.

8 October 2018: 2018 Nobel Peace Prize is shared between Nadia Murad and Denis Mukwege. Both of them contributed to fighting sexual violence during armed conflicts. Rape and sexual violence can constitute war crimes.

5 October 2018: One more mass grave was uncovered in Sri Lankan Northern province, near Mannar. This grave, with remains of 136 persons, together with another one discovered in the area in 2013 and containing 84 skeletons, points to war crimes committed in the area.

4 October 2018: The government of South Sudan is against setting up a war crimes court. Creation of a hybrid court was a key point in the peace deal recently agreed upon between those who took part in the five-year civil war in the country.

3 October 2018: Qatar objected to the allegations by Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates of supporting terrorism at the UN General Assembly on Saturday. The meeting did not bring any progress in the Gulf crisis. An embargo imposed last year by the aforementioned States and Egypt on Qatar remains in place.

2 October 2018: German police arrested 7 men suspected of building a far-right terrorist group called Revolution Chemnitz. Officially, 83 persons were killed in Germany by neo-Nazi and other extremist groups since 1990. A separate investigation by news outlets suggests the number of killed individuals amounts to 169.

1 October 2018: Seven man were arrested for allegedly planning to commit a big-scale terrorist attack in The Netherlands. The planning was at advanced stage. The terrorism threat level in the country remains at the same level: it is substantial, at 4 on a scale of 5.

September 2018

28 September 2018: The leaders of six countries (Argentina, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru) asked the president of the ICC to investigate possible crimes against humanity committed in Venezuela. It is the first time that ICC member States seek investigation of alleged crimes committed on the territory of another State.

27 September 2018: Guatemala City court decided that the crime of genocide was perpetrated during the 36-year civil war. However, Jose Mauricio Rodriguez, a former military intelligence chief, was acquitted of both genocide and crimes against humanity.

26 September 2018: A commander of a Ghoraba as-Sham group, consisting of 150 members and taking actions under the Free Syrian Army (FSA) umbrella group, was sentenced to life imprisonment for war crimes by a German court.

25 September 2018: Canadian parliament unanimously voted to declare that the crimes committed by the Myanmar military against Rohingya Muslims constitute genocide.

24 September 2018: A 94-year-old man is to face trial in a juvenile court in Germany. He is accused of being an accessory to war crimes: hundreds of murders in a Nazi concentration camp during the World War II. Because the man was younger than 21 years old when the alleged offences took place, he will not be tried in an adult court.

21 September 2018: The International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism, the purpose of which is bringing to justice individuals responsible for severe crimes committed during the conflict in Syria, has planned to open two cases concerning alleged war crimes by the end of 2018.

20 September 2018: The ICC has opened a preliminary examination of the alleged crimes against humanity committed during the Rohingya crisis. It can be a first step in a widespread investigation of the Burmese military crackdown, which resulted in death of 700,000 people and displacement of thousands individuals.

19 September 2018: The ICC fined Jean-Pierre Bemba 300,000 euros and sentenced him to 12 months for witness tampering during his war crimes trial. Due to the time served already, the jail term will not be enforced. Judge Bertram Schmitt stated the sentencing should be understood as a "cautionary example".

18 September 2018: After the signing of the peace deal in South Sudan, the United Nations Human Rights Commission on South Sudan is calling on the government to set up a hybrid court to address potential war crimes and crimes against humanity.

17 September 2018: The European Union in a Draft Resolution urges Myanmar to provide effective justice mechanisms for alleged crimes against humanity committed during the Rohingya crisis and to accept the jurisdiction of the ICC. The Draft Resolution follows the outcome of an independent fact-finding mission which has found evidence for a 'genocidal intent' of Myanmar officials.

14 September 2018: UN inquiry commission concluded that Syrian government forces and/or affiliated militias committed the war crime of using chemical weapons and launching indiscriminate attacks three times during January and February. Up to now, 33 usages of chemical weapons have been attributed to the Syrian government.

13 September 2018: Palestinians have filed a new complaint with the ICC against Israel because of the planned demolition of the Palestinian Bedouin village of Khan al Ahmar in the West Bank. Due to the complainants, the demolition might amount to war crimes.

12 September 2018: The ICC declared that it will continue its work 'undeterred' by the threats of the Trump administration to impose sanctions on ICC judges if investigations into alleged war crimes committed by US military and intelligence services in Afghanistan proceeded.

11 September 2018: Despite an agreement signed with the government of Mali three years ago, armed groups are undermining peace in that country. There is a number of groups linked to human trafficking, drug smuggling and terrorism operating in Mali. The UN has named individuals and groups threatening the implementation of the agreement despite signing it, what constitutes an unusual move from the side of that organisation.

10 September 2018: Trump administration has threatened to impose sanctions on the ICC judges and prosecutors if they proceed with an investigation concerning alleged war crimes committed by Americans in Afghanistan. The sanctions would include banning from entry to the United States, sanctioning funds as well as prosecution before the American courts.

7 September 2018: Yesterday the ICC Pre-Trial Chamber I ruled that the Court has jurisdiction over the alleged deportation (a potential crime against humanity) of the Rohingya population from Myanmar to the neighbouring Bangladesh.

6 September 2018: Amnesty International published a report indicating that hundreds of prisoners in South Sudan are subject to torture and inhuman treatment. Between 2014 and 2016 at least 20 people died in detention. Notably, South Sudan is a party to the United Nations Convention against Torture.

5 September 2018: The British government has still not decided whether to start a judge-led inquiry into the post-9/11 human rights abuses, including torture, in which the United Kingdom was involved. The deadline for the decision mentioned by the Foreign Office minister Alan Duncan passed on 3 September.

4 September 2018: A group of farmers from Israel has filed a complaint against Hamas in the ICC. The farmers wish that the Hamas leaders were prosecuted for alleged war crimes. The filing was related especially to the torching of fields in southern Israel.

3 September 2018: The Northern Provincial Council in Sri Lanka has passed a resolution to ask the United Nations Human Rights Council to establish a court where individuals responsible for alleged war crimes and human rights abuses that happened during the civil war would be put on trial. 

August 2018

31 August 2018: Closing statements in Bosco Ntaganda’s case at the ICC took place between 28 and 30 August 2018. Ntaganda faces 18 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He claimed that he was unfairly called the ‘Terminator’ and that he never harmed any civilians. He stated as well that false testimony had been given by the witnesses.

30 August 2018: A complaint with the ICC was filed accusing President of The Philippines Rodrigo Duterte of murder and crimes against humanity. The filing was made by activists and families of eight victims of Duterte's 'war on drugs'. 

29 August 2018: Human remains taken from Namibia following what is often called 'the first genocide of the 20th century' are to be returned to the country from Germany. Nonetheless, the descendants of those affected by the massacre point out that still no formal apology or reparations were made. 

28 August 2018:Jean-Pierre Bemba, acquitted of war crimes by the ICC earlier this year, cannot run in the presidential elections in the DRC. The decision was taken by the electoral commission and it is due to the fact that there is still a pending case against Bemba at the ICC, regarding interference with witnesses.

27 August 2018: Human Rights Watch has published a report questioning the credibility of the Joint Incidents Assessment Team's work in Yemen. This group of investigators has been organised to investigate the coalition's military actions, including alleged war crimes.

24 August 2018: A year after its creation by the UNSC, a UN investigative team has started work on collection and preservation of evidence related to alleged war crimescrimes against humanity and genocide committed by ISIS in Iraq.

23 August 2018: Rohingya refugees who return to the Rakhine State in Bangladesh are being tortured and imprisoned by Myanmar authorities. Some returnees testified to the Human Rights Watch that they were sentenced for four years for illegally crossing the border. A description of various torture methods used was also provided.

22 August 2018: Jakiw Palij, a 95-year-old Nazi war crimes suspect and a former concentration camp guard was deported from the US to Germany. He came to the US under false pretenses and lived there for many years remaining uncrecognised. He is the last Nazi suspect whose deportation from the US was ordered.

21 August 2018: Argentina intends to request the ICC to investigate potential crimes against humanity in Venezuela. Chile, Colombia and Paraguay are cooperating with Argentina on working on the filing. According to the Argentinian President Mauricio Macri, the request may be submitted in the upcoming weeks. 

20 August 2018: Amnesty International calls Vietnam to investigate alleged torture and ill-treatment of individuals who attended a concert in Ho Chi Minh, where pre-Communist era (yet apolitical) songs were performed. The police beat the concertgoers, concentrating especially on rights activitsts present at the venue.

17 August 2018: The number of terrorist attacks around the world is declining. The number of attacks was 20% lower in 2017 in comparison to 2016, with the number of fatalities decreasing by 24%. A big decline is especially visible in the Middle East and Africa. 

16 August 2018: There are calls to investigate whether the USA violated international law by its support for the Saudi coalition in Yemen, as potentially war crimes could have taken place. The USA offers military support and intelligence to the coalition. According to the Yemen Data Project, one in three Saudi bombings hits civilian targets.

13 August 2018: Drone attacks on Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro and at the airport in Abu Dhabi mark a start of an era of so-called terrorism by joystick. Attacks from the air have become the domain of not only States, but also of the non-State actors.

10 August 2018: The National Human Rights Commission (‘NHRC’) in Nepal has criticised a number of penalty provisions in the draft bill of the transitional justice act for their leniency. The NHRC has proposed at least 59 changes. The provision suggesting three years of community service as a punishment for war crimes met with special criticism.

9 August 2018: There has been a significant increase in piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. Nigeria alone recorded 31 incidents in its territorial waters. It is currently a State with the most attacks against vessels in the second quarter of 2018.

8 August 2018: President of Côte d'Ivoire, Alassane Ouattara, stated that 800 people accused of crimes related to the 2010-11 crisis in the country would be granted amnesty. It is now unclear how many of the alleged perpetrators of war crimes and crimes against humanity will be tried.

7 August 2018: A number of the Islamic State militants have surrendered to the Afghan government in Jowzjan province in order not to be captured by the Taliban. Although the perpetrators of the alleged war crimes are going to be prosecuted, the provincial authorities stated that the rest of the detainees will be freed under the government amnesty plan. It is despite of the fact that President Ashraf Ghani opposed amnesty for Islamic State loyalists.

6 August 2018: The head of the UN Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) stated that the recent suicide attack inside a Shia mosque in Gardez 'may amount to war crimes'. Fourty eight persons were killed in that attack and more than seventy were injured.

3 August 2018: German authorities arrested Sivatheeban B. The man is suspected of membership in a foreign terrorist organisation and committing war crimes in Sri Lanka as a member of Tamil Tigers. According to prosecutors he belonged to the group between 2006 and 2009.

1 August 2018: A US court has heard the first oral argumentation in a case concerning the so-called 'first genocide of the 20th century'. The term relates to the mass extermination of Nama and Herero people in South West Africa (now Namibia) by German colonial troops.

July 2018

31 July 2018: The persecution of Muslim Uyghurs in Xinjiang, China is worsening and it may amount to crimes against humanity. Several hundred thousand to one million of Uyghurs have been detained in extralegal re-education camps.

30 July 2018: The Humanitarian Law Centre, an NGO based in Belgrade, claims that Serbia stalls prosecution of war crimes related to the 1990s conflict. Within the past six months there was no notable progress with regard to the implementation of the national war crimes prosecution strategy.

27 July 2018: A Commission of Inquiry consisting of three persons and led by David Crane has been set up by the UN to investigate into situation in Gaza. As stated by Human Rights Watch earlier this year, war crimes could have taken place there since the start of the Gaza Border Protests in March 2018.

26 July 2018: The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture ('CPT') has published a report based on six visits to Azerbaijan from 2004 to 2017. The report states that torture and other 'severe physical ill-treatment' is widespread in prisons in that country. President of the CPT called for a 'decisive action' in this regard.

25 July 2018: Montenegrin police have arrested Predrag Vukovic ('Madzo'), who is accused of committing war crimes in the Kosovar village of Ljubenic in 1999. Serbian war crimes prosecutors were looking for Vukovic since 2014.

24 July 2018: The UK government decided not to seek assurances that no execution would take place in case of two formerly British terrorism suspects, currently held in the US. El Shafee Elsheikh and Alexanda Kotey are accused of being members of 'The Beatles' ISIS cell. They were stripped of their British citizenship.

23 July 2018: A number of senior Sri Lankan commanders who have been sent to act as UN peacekeepers were involved in alleged war crimes during the Sri Lankan 26-year civil war.

20 July 2018: ReCAAP Information Sharing Centre has released information that Asian piracy is at a ten year low. Notably, just in the time span from January to June 2018 a 15% decrease was noted in comparison to the same period in 2017.

19 July 2018: The new government in Spain has announced that it is willing to establish a truth commission investigating crimes against humanity committed during Francisco Franco's dictatorship. An estimate of 140,000 people disappeared during that time, not including those killed during the civil war.

18 July 2018: The ICC's jurisdiction over the crime of aggression was activated on 17 July 2018. Less than 40 countries (35 as of 22 February 2018) have so far ratified the amendment enabling their leaders to be found liable for that crime.

17 July 2018: The FARC leaders, including Rodrigo Londoño, appeared for the first time at a new special peace tribunal established in Colombia. They had to respond to allegations of war crimes committed during five decades of the conflict in the country.

16 July 2018: Former Democratic Republic of Congo Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba has been nominated for presidential elections due to take place in December this year. The nomination has taken place five weeks after Bemba's acquittal of war crimes and crimes against humanity charges at the ICC. 

13 July 2018: Mahmoud al-Werfalli, a Libyan commander alleged to have directly committed and to have ordered war crimes in Lybia, has escaped from prison. The ICC has issued an arrest warrant for him in August 2017, but al-Werfalli is yet to appear before the court.

12 July 2018: Amnesty International urges that abuses taking place in secret detention facilities, perpetrated by the United Arab Emirates forces and Yemeni militias associated with them, should be investigated as war crimes.

11 July 2018: The UN has stated that allegedly war crimes took place in South Sudan. Three commanders were identified as the most responsible. The UN has called for introducing new sanctions against senior figures in the country.

10 July 2018: Human Rights Watch and the International Commission of Jurists state that Nepal's current draft law on prosecuting crimes against humanitywar crimes, torture and other international crimes does not meet international standards. Twelve years have passed since the end of a civil war in Nepal.

9 July 2018: The United States boycotted an informal meeting of the UN Security Council, organised in order to mark the 20th anniversary of the Rome Statute. Other opponents of the ICC Statute, including China and Russia, were present at the meeting and participated in discussions. As suggested by one of the officials, the non-appearance of the US is likely to be linked to the potential investigation of war crimes, allegedly committed by members of the US military in Afghanistan.

6 July 2018: Amnesty International stated that forcible transfer of the Palestinian population from the village Khan al-Ahmar, and settling Israelis there, violates Geneva Convention IV and amounts to war crimes.On 24 May 2018 the Israeli Supreme Court ruled that the entire village can be destroyed.

5 July 2018: Prosecutors in the Jean-Pierre Bemba's trial allege that Bemba's acquittal was based on tainted evidence. Bemba was previously charged with five counts of crimes against humanity and war crimes, but the conviction was overturned on appeal. After a one day hearing conducted yesterday judges will consider the sentence.

4 July 2018: The Organization of American States is of an opinion that there are reasonable grounds to believe that crimes against humanity have been committed in Venezuela. The widespread, systematic attack against the civilian population consists of murder, sexual violence, torture, arbitrary detention and persecution. The regime in Venezuela denies existence of a crisis and denies access to humanitarian help.

3 July 2018: Human Rights Watch claims that the Israeli officials' apparent approval of firing on Gazan demonstrators who posed no immediate threat to life may amount to war crimes. Since March 2018, 124 persons were killed during the demonstrations and over 4,000 were wounded with live ammunition.

2 July 2018: Iraq has executed at least twelve individuals convicted of terrorism crimes. Iraqi Prime Minister al-Abadi ordered immediate execution following the finding of the bodies of eight IS captives on the road the day before. The way trials and executions of IS suspects are conducted raises concerns of various rights groups.

June 2018

29 June 2018: Théodore Rukeratabaro was jailed for life as the Stockholm District Court found that he played a 'leading role' in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Rukeratabaro arrived to Sweden in 1998 and was naturalised in 2006. He is the third genocide suspect to be convicted in Sweden. Rwanda commended the court's decision.

28 June 2018: Colombia’s senate diminished the powers of the tribunal where crimes related to the conflict with the FARC were supposed to be tried. In effect, the tribunal’s capacities hardly reflect what was agreed upon between the government of President Juan Manuel Santos and the FARC. Meanwhile, the ICC urges speedy investigation of the alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity and is ready to investigate if Colombian justice system is unwilling or unable to start proceedings.

27 June 2018: The UN Human Rights Council issued a report concerning the conflict in the Kasai region in the Democratic Republic of Congo, which generally ended at the end of 2017. The report states that that all sides to the conflict committed war crimes and crimes against humanity

26 June 2018: France handed over Radomir Susnjar, a war crimes suspect, to Bosnia. The Bosnian prosecutor's office stated that he was charged with participating in an operation in which 57 Muslim Bosniaks were burned alive, as well as robbery and illegal detention of civilians near the eastern town of Visegrad in 1992. Susnjar lived in France for years before being tracked down.

25 June 2018: The UN Human Rights Council stated that the Donald Trump’s policy of separating migrant children from their parents at the border “may amount to torture”.

22 June 2018: ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda addressed the United Nations Security Council, urging it ‘to take steps to facilitate’ the dialogue between the Prosecutor’s Office and the Government of Sudan, with regard to the alleged crimes against humanity and alleged war crimes committed in Darfur.

21 June 2018: The Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic stated that the siege of eastern Ghouta was ''barbaric and medieval". It noted that actions of pro-Government forces, armed groups and members of terrorist groups amount to war crimes.

 

 

20 June 2018: Today the ICC is to decide whether it has a mandate to investigate the alleged crimes against humanity related to the Rohingya crisis. The ICC has already requested Bangladesh to make an opinion on whether prosecution is possible. Bangladeshi Foreign Affairs and Law ministries have been urged by the National Human Rights Commission of Bangladesh to assist the ICC with regard to the potential prosecution. The Commission collected testimonies of 53 Rohingya women allegedly sexually abused in Myanmar.

19 June 2018: The ICC Pre-Trial Chamber decided on the conduct of the proceedings against Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi (allegedly criminally responsible for crimes against humanity). The decision was taken following the defendant’s challenge to the admissibility of the case on the basis of the ne bis in idem principle. The Pre-Trial Chamber asked the Prosecutor, victims and the UN Security Council to submit written observations by 28 September 2018. A legal representative for victims was appointed.

18 June 2018: An apcourt in Copenhagen, Denmark ordered the Danish government to compensate 18 civilians tortured in 2004 during an operation 'Green Desert' near Basra, Iraq. The court ruled that although the soldiers of the Danish battalion did not take part in the abuse, they failed to prevent it. The amount of compensation awarded to the 18 individuals was 30,000 danish kroner ($4,600). Defence Minister Claus Hjort Frederiksen noted that the judgment would be appealed against.

15 June 2018: In this interesting article, Alex Whiting discusses how the International Criminal Court Appeals Chamber’s acquittal of Mr Jean-Pierre Bemba would impact the Court and its rules.

14 June 2018: Trial opened in Sarajevo for two former Bosnian Serb Army soldiers on genocide charges. Mile Kosoric, the former commander of the Bosnian Serb Army’s Vlasenica Brigade, and Momcilo Tesic, a member of the brigade’s Military Police Squad, are accused of killing men from Srebrenica, raping women and robbing Bosniaks of money and gold in July 1995.

13 June 2018: Trial Chamber VII of the International Criminal Court ordered interim release of Mr Jean-Pierre Bemba, following his acquittal on war crimes and crimes against humanity charges.

12 June 2018: Human rights organizations called on the International Criminal Court to investigate atrocities allegedly committed by the Mexican military in a crackdown on drug crime in the Chihuahua region. The groups presented a dossier to prosecutors documenting alleged slayings, torture, rapes and forced disappearances involving 121 victims during 2008-2010, claiming they amounted to crimes against humanity.

11 June 2018: Germany’s federal prosecutor issued an international arrest warrant for Syria’s Air Force Intelligence chief, Jamil Hassan, for crimes against humanity. The warrant alleges that Hassan ordered his forces to torture, murder and commit sexual crimes against hundreds of detainees in Syria between 2011 and 2014.

8 June 2018: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court decided on Friday, by majority, to acquit ex-Congolese politician Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo from the charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The Appeals Camber decided that the Trial Chamber III “had erroneously convicted Mr Bemba for specific criminal acts that were outside the scope of the charges as confirmed” and had made "serious errors” in “its assessment of whether Mr Bemba took all necessary and reasonable measures to prevent, repress or punish” the crimes committed by his subordinates. Mr Bemba will remain in detention on account of another case in which he has been convicted of offences against the administration of justice, pending a decision of Trial Chamber VII in that case.

8 June 2018: A confidential Australian governmental defence inquiry has found that some members of Australia’s elite special forces allegedly committed war crimes in Afghanistan amid a “complete lack of accountability” from the military chain of command. 

7 June 2018: German prosecutors are investigating a suspected former member of Nazi mobile killing squads for involvement in WWII massacres carried out by the “Einsatzgruppen”. This is the third such case to be opened in Germany in recent months based on a legal argument that someone who enabled war crimes could be charged with accessory to murder , even if they can't be linked to specific deaths.

6 June 2018: Sixteen Syrian men and women filed a criminal complaint in Austria against 24 senior officials in the Syrian government for the war crimes and crimes against humanity of murder, torture, serious bodily harm and deprivation of liberty, pursuant to Austria’s universal jurisdiction rules.

5 June 2018: Investigations by Amnesty International in the city of Raqqa, Syria led to allegations that US-led Coalition forces killed hundreds of civilians and injured thousands in the offensive to take back the city from the ISIS. Read the report here.

4 June 2018: On May 31, the United Nations secretary-general appointed British barrister Karim Khan QC to head a team tasked with collecting and preserving evidence of serious crimes committed by ISIS in Iraq. Human Rights Watch argued that the team’s mandate allows it to document serious crimes committed by ISIS but failed to include within its scope of work the abuses, including war crimes, by anti-ISIS forces.

1 June 2018: A report published by Amnesty International alleges that the Nigerian security forces have been abusing thousands of women and girls who survived the rule of Boko Haram. The allegations include, among others, detention, physical abuse and rape, sometimes in exchange for food. 

May 2018

31 May 2018: The International Criminal Court received victims submissions on behalf of 400 Rohingya women and children on Wednesday, in support of the Prosecutor’s Request seeking a ruling on the question of whether the ICC may exercise its jurisdiction over the alleged deportation of the Rohingya people from Myanmar to Bangladesh.  

30 May 2018: A three-member panel of experts of the Organization of American States (OAS) found that Venezuelan officials in the government of President Nicolas Maduro have committed crimes against humanity. The 400-page expert report, together with supporting evidence, will be forwarded to the International Criminal Court, according to Secretary General of the OAS.

29 May 2018: The Central African Republic (CAR)’s Special Criminal Court is due to start its formal investigations next week into alleged war crimes and crimes against humanity committed during the country’s recent political violence. The court will be based in CAR and is composed of both national and international judges.

28 May 2018: The Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court (ICC) invited submissions from Sudan and its president, Al Bashir, on the legal questions raised by Jordan in its appeal against the Court’s decision to refer Jordan’s non-compliance to the ICC Assembly of States Parties (ASP) and the UN Security Council (UNSC). This will be the first time that the ICC Appeals Chamber will consider non-compliance referrals to the ASP and the UNSC. 

25 May 2018: Oceans Beyond Piracy released its review for 2017, showing that pirate attacks remain a serious threat off the Horn of Africa, the coast of Latin America and in the Gulf of Guinea. According to the lead author, “pirate groups retain their ability to organize and implement attacks against ships transiting the region.” Read the full report here

24 May 2018: The high-profile Molina Theissen case has reached a verdict in Guatemala. Four retired senior members of the Guatemalan military, including two high-ranking officers previously thought to be untouchable, were convicted yesterday of crimes against humanity for the illegal detention, torture, and sexual violation of Emma Molina Theissen and for the enforced disappearance of Emma’s 14-year-old brother Marco Antonio during the country's civil war in 1981. A fifth official was acquitted of all charges.

23 May 2018: Palestine referred the situation in Palestine since 13 June 2014 to the International Criminal Court on Tuesday, requesting “the Prosecutor to investigate … past, ongoing and future crimes within the court's jurisdiction, committed in all parts of the territory of the State of Palestine". Read the statement by the ICC Prosecutor here.

22 May 2018: Judges at the International Criminal Court (ICC) will deliver the verdict in Jean-Pierre Bemba’s appeal on 8 June. Bemba, a former vice president of the Democratic Republic of Congo, was convicted in March 2016 for war crimes and crimes against humanity of murder, rape, and pillaging. He appealed both his conviction and the 18-year prison sentence. Prosecutors also appealed the sentence, which they asked judges to raise to 25 years.

18 May 2018: Human Rights Watch published a new report on the Central African Republic’s newly established Special Criminal Court. The report finds that, despite important progress since 2017, the court will need more support from the United Nations and government donors to prosecute grave crimes, including widespread killings, rape and sexual violence, and destruction of homes. 

16 May 2018: In a statement to AFP, Ms. Fatou Bensouda, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, reacted to the killing of protestors on the Gaza border. Ms. Bensouda vowed that she was watching closely the unrest in Gaza and that she would “take any action warranted” to prosecute crimes. The situation in Palestine is currently under preliminary investigation at the ICC.

15 May 2018: At least 58 Palestinians were killed and about 2,700 wounded during clashes at the Gaza-Israel border during protests against the opening of the US embassy in Jerusalem, which marked the deadliest day in Gaza since the 2014 war. According to the UN OHCHR, most of the protesters appeared to have been unarmed or not presenting an imminent threat to the Israeli Security Forces at the time of their killing or injury.  

14 May 2018: During a UN Security Council meeting, the International Criminal Court’s Prosecutor Ms. Fatou Bensouda condemned the Libyan authorities’ failure to arrest Mahmoud Al-Werfalli, a war crimes suspect accused of executing 33 Libyans in 2016 and 2017 and a major in the Libyan National Army. The ICC warrant against Mr. Al-Werfalli was issued in August 2017.

11 May 2018: The International Criminal Court's Pre-Trial Chamber I issued orders scheduling a status conference on 20 June 2018 to be held in closed session, only in the presence of the Prosecutor. The purpose of the hearing is to adjudicate the Prosecutor’s request pursuant to Article 19(3) of the Rome Statute for a ruling on whether the Court may exercise jurisdiction over the alleged deportation of the Rohingya people from Myanmar to Bangladesh.

8 May 2018: Colombia’s truth commission officially began working on Tuesday to expose the truth behind the atrocities committed during Colombia’s five decades of war. The commission will operate for three years and convene hearing on select incidents of violence. It will conduct public hearings and facilitate private meetings between victims and perpetrators across the country, in order to help victims heal from the trauma of the conflict. 

April 2018

26 April 2018: Human Rights Watch reported that the Israeli military has repeatedly denied Palestinian permits to build schools in the West Bank and demolished schools built without permit, creating pressure on Palestinians to leave their communities. According to HRW, such actions violate Israel’s obligations as an occupying power. It also stressed that the Fourth Geneva Convention and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court prohibit widespread, unlawful destruction of property, as well as forcible transfer of civilians within an occupied territory. 

25 April 2018: A Liberian warlord known as “Jungle Jabbah” has been sentenced to 30 years in prison in the US for lying about his role in Liberia’s civil war. Despite being convicted of immigration fraud and perjury instead of war crimes, the trial was believed to be a monumental victory for Liberians and the "first case to provide some justice for victims of Liberia's civil war".

24 April 2018: In a report to the Security Council on 16 April 2018, the UN Secretary-General included Myanmar Armed Forces on an annual blacklist of groups that are “credibly suspected” of carrying out sexual violence during conflict. The acts were allegedly perpetrated during military “clearance” operations in October 2016 and August 2017 against the ethnic Rohingya community in Myanmar.

23 April 2018: Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic begins his two-day appeals hearing on Monday before judges of the UN MICT. Karadzic was convicted in 2016 by the ICTY of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity for his role in the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia as president of the Bosnian Serb Republic, and was sentenced to 40 years of imprisonment. He has filed 50 grounds of appeal and asked for reversal of the entire judgment as well as a new trial. A verdict is expected by the end of 2018.

20 April 2018: Interesting article on how the principle of functional immunity under international law might be used by the United States against the International Criminal Court’s exercise of jurisdiction on U.S. personnel in the war crimes probe in Afghanistan.  

19 April 2018: On 17 April, Mr Peter Lewis, a UK national, was sworn in as Registrar of the International Criminal Court for a period of five years. 

18 April 2018: Five key suspects of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide have been placed under fresh investigations in the UK by the Metropolitan Police’s War Crimes Unit. The suspects were alleged to have held key leadership positions under the regime during the genocide. Rwanda issued indictments against them 11 years ago, while the indictments were not executed by the UK judiciary due to fair trial concerns.  

17 April 2018: 
German prosecutors have charged a 94-year-old former SS guard at the Auschwitz death camp as an accessory to mass murder. The accused is a German national born in Serbia who allegedly served as a guard at Auschwitz in late 1942 and early 1943. It is estimated that 13,335 people were sent to the gas chambers during that time. 

16 April 2018: 
Read this Just Security article that analyses the strengths and weaknesses of existing domestic and international legal arguments supporting the coordinated airstrike launched by the US, UK, and France over suspected chemical weapons use in Syria. On 14 April, the UN Security Council rejected a proposal by the Russian Federation to condemn the act as aggression

13 April 2018: The global shipping industry reported 66 incidents of maritime piracy in the first quarter, with the Gulf of Guinea accounting for most of the increase. In Q1, a total of 100 crew members were taken hostage and 14 kidnapped from vessels; 39 vessels were boarded, 11 fired upon and four hijacked. The numbers mark a 50% increase in piracy attacks cases, compared to 43 cases in Q1 2017 and 37 in 2016.

12 April 2018: The Appeals Chamber of the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals (MICT) reversed Vojislav Šešelj’s 2016 acquittal delivered by the Trial Chamber of the ICTY and convicted him of crimes against humanity. It also reversed the Trial Chamber’s finding that there was no widespread or systematic attack against the non-Serbian civilian population in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mr. Šešelj was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment. 

11 April 2018: The OHCHR and the UN Support Mission in Libya published a report which revealed the arbitrary dentention and torture of thousands of people in Libya by armed groups, including those affiliated with the state. Many detainees have been held without charge or trial since the 2011 revolution that overthrew former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. Read the full report here.

10 April 2018: Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court has asked for the Court’s ruling on whether it has jurisdiction over the deportations of Rohingya people from Myanmar to Bangladesh. The ruling will “assist in her further deliberations concerning any preliminary examination she may independently undertake”. Read the full request here.

10 April 2018: The Syrian city of Douma suffered from suspected chemical attack during the weekend that has resulted in the death of at least 42 people. This attack came almost exactly a year after the deadly sarin gas attack in the town of Khan Sheikhun. In a report, Human Rights Watch has compiled a timeline of chemical weapons attacks that took place in Syria since 2013.

9 April 2018: Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Ms. Fatou Bensouda, issued a statement regarding the worsening situation in Gaza, highlighting that “violence against civilians - in a situation such as the one prevailing in Gaza – could constitute crimes under the Rome Statute”, “as could the use of civilian presence for the purpose of shielding military activities.” The situation in Palestine is currently under preliminary examination at the ICC.

6 April 2018: Read this interesting article published on Just Security on the International Criminal Court's preliminary examination into the situation in Afghanistan, including allegations against US personnel, and how it might play out between the Court and the United States. 

5 April 2018: Al Hassan Ag Abdoul Aziz Ag Mohamed Ag Mahmoud, who was extradited to The Hague last week, appeared for the first time before the single judge of Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court. The opening of the confirmation of charges hearing is provisionally scheduled for 24 September 2018 to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to establish substantial grounds to believe that Al Hassan committed crimes against humanity and war crimes in Timbuktu, Mali. 

4 April 2018: Former Guatemalan military dictator Efraín Ríos Montt died at the age of 91 while facing genocide charges for his role during the most brutal phase of the Guatelaman civil war that lasted from 1960 to 1996. Ríos Montt was convicted in 2013 of genocide and crimes against humanity, while the verdict was vacated by the Constitutional Court ten days after. At the time of his death, he was facing a retrial that started in October 2017.

3 April 2018: On Saturday, Al Hassan Ag Abdoul Aziz Ag Mohamed Ag Mahmoud was surrendered to the International Criminal Court by the Malian authorities and arrived at the ICC’s detention centre in the Netherlands. Al Hassan is suspected of war crimes and crimes against humanity for the destruction of cultural heritage and sexual and gender-based crimes allegedly committed in 2012 and 2013 in Timbuktu, Mali. 

March 2018

29 March 2018: Judges of the International Criminal Court elected Mr. Peter Lewis (UK) as Registrar for a period of five years, succeeding Mr. Herman von Hebel (Netherlands) whose current five-year mandate ends on 16 April 2018.

28 March 2018: In its first report, the International Impartial Independent Mechanism Investigating Serious Crimes in Syria (IIIM) claimed to have amassed an “overwhelming volume” of testimony, images and videos documenting atrocities committed by all parties during Syria’s war. The IIIM also claimed to have been preparing case files and engaging with war crimes investigative units of states, including in Europe. 

27 March 2018: Former Bosnian military leader Ratko Mladić on Thursday appealed his conviction to the UN Mechanism for International Tribunals. Mladić was tried and convicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, then sentenced to life imprisonment on 22 November 2017.

26 March 2018: Human rights groups are calling upon the Chadian government to comply with the reparation order awarded in 2015 by a Chadian criminal court to 7000 victims of Habré regime. The court had convicted 20 security agents from the Habré era on charges of murder, torture, kidnapping, and arbitrary detention.   

25 March 2018: Interesting blogpost by Elvina Pothelet on the possibilities of prosecuting the punitive demolition of Palestinian homes as war crimes at the International Criminal Court. The current policy of the Israeli government consists of demolishing the home of relatives of Palestinians suspected of security offences against Israel.

24 March 2018: Human Rights Watch is urging the British government to change their policy towards Saudi Arabia and its involvement in the war in Yemen. The rights group, which documented 87 unlawful attacks by the Saudi-led coalition, declared that by supplying arms to the Saudis, Britain risks complicity in war crimes

23 March 2018: Interesting blogpost by Theresa Reinold on the latest African Union summit and its implication for the organisation’s relationship to the International Criminal Court. The AU announced that it would seek, through the UN General Assembly, an ICJ advisory opinion on the question of immunity. 

22 March 2018: A report by Ancile Avocats, commissioned by Amnesty International and ACAT, found that France’s arms export to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates could be in contravention of its international commitments. Indeed, the arms supplied could be used by the two states to commit war crimes in the war on Yemen.

21 March 2018: On 21 and 22 March, the UK Court of Appeal will hear a case pertaining to the immunity of members of special missions visiting the UK with the approval of the Foreign Office. The case arises from the refusal of the Metropolitan’s Police to arrest Lt. General Mahmoud Hegazy, an Egyptian General suspected of torture and other ill-treatment.

20 March 2018: In this interesting blogpost, Jennifer Trahan reflects on Burundi’s withdrawal from the international criminal court. She considers the need for state parties and the civil society to adopt a revitalised approach to advancing ratifications of the Rome Statute.

19 March 2018: Five lawyers have filed a prosecution application in the Melbourne magistrates’ court under universal jurisdiction against Aung San Suu Kyi, on charges of crimes against humanity for the deportation or forcible transfer of population. Christian Porter, the Australian attorney general, found that the case could not proceed because Aung San Suu Kyi has complete immunity.

18 March 2018: Interesting article on the problem of foreign fighters portraying themselves as aid workers, and the need for a differentiating solution ensuring that aid still reaches the people who need it.

17 March 2018: The UN OHCHR has released a new report detailing human rights violations that occurred in the early parts of the Mexican government’s investigation in the kidnapping of 43 students from Ayotzinapa in Mexico. The report found evidence of arbitrary detention and torture in 34 cases.

16 March 2018: A new report of the UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria found that acts of sexual and gender-based violence have been perpetrated throughout Syria by most warring parties, including the government forces, ISIL militants and rebel groups. The acts constitute war crimes and crimes against humanity.

16 March 2018: The Special Jurisdiction for Peace (JEP) tribunal in Colombia will begin collecting evidence and preparing for its first hearings. The tribunal, a transitional justice mechanism, was designed to try former government soldiers and FARC rebels for war crimes committed during the Colombian conflict.

15 March 2018: President Rodrigo Duterte declared planning to withdraw the Philippines from the International Criminal Court on Thursday. This statement follows the opening of a preliminary examination by the ICC prosecutor into alleged crimes against humanity committed during the war on drugs.

14 March 2018: The UN OHCHR’s fact-finding mission in Myanmar reported that Facebook played a determining role in the human rights abuses committed against the Rohingya minority by fuelling hate speech. UN special rapporteur Yanghee Lee previously stated that the violence against the Rohingya bears the hallmarks of genocide.

13 March 2018: A report by the United Kingdom’s Inspectorate of Prisons revealed that the Home Office is keeping torture victims in detention at Harmondsworth immigration removal centre. The report found that despite accepting evidence of torture in 9 out of 10 sample cases, the Home Office continued to detain all but one of the people involved.

12 March 2018: A new report by Amnesty International reveals that there is a dramatic increase of security infrastructure in Myanmar’s Rakhine state, where military bases, helipads and roads are built on burned villages. On Friday, Zeid Ra'ad al-Hussein called for the referral of the situation to the ICC, which he has described as ethnic cleansing that could amount to acts of genocide.

11 March 2018: On 11 March, the judges of the International Criminal Court elected for three years Judge Chile Eboe-Osuji as President of the Court. Judge Robert Fremr and Judge Marc Perrin de Brichambaut were elected as Vice-Presidents.

10 March 2018: On 8 March, the International Criminal Court’s Appeals Chamber confirmed, for the most extent, the Reparations Order in the Al Mahdi case. After having amended the Order on two points, the Chamber ruled that the Trial Chamber could request the assistance of the Trust Fund for Victims to undertake the administrative screening of beneficiaries of individual reparations meeting the criteria set out by the Trial Chamber.

9 March 2018: The International Criminal Court’s Appeals Chamber delivered on March 8 its Judgment on the appeals against the Reparations Order in the Katanga case. The Chamber confirmed most of the Reparations Order, but it ordered the Trial Chamber to carry out a new assessment of the applications of five applicants who had claimed reparation for transgenerational harm.

9 March 2018: The International Criminal Court’s Appeals Chamber issued on March 8 its judgments on the appeals against verdict and sentence in the Bemba et al. case. The Appeal Chamber acquitted Mr Bemba, Mr Kilolo and Mr Magenda of the charge of presenting evidence that a party knows is false or forged, but confirmed the convictions in the remaining charges. It reversed their sentences, and ordered the Trial Chamber to make a new determination.

8 March 2018: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) dismissed the Oneissi Defence’s Rule 167 application for acquittal. The Court ruled that the 2005 bombing that killed former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri was a terrorist act and that evidence presented by prosecutors “could” lead to the conviction of four suspects.

7 March 2018: The UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria released its newest report documenting violations occurred between July 2017 and January 2018. According to the report, air strikes by Russia and a U.S.-led coalition killed civilians in Syria on a large scale last year, while the Assad government carried out unlawful chemical weapon attacks in rebel-held eastern Ghouta.

6 March 2018: Activists have accused South Sudan’s government of funding militias responsible for atrocities committed during the ongoing civil war with profit from Nilepet, the state oil company, while the government has dismissed the accusations. Last month, the UN identified more than 40 South Sudanese military officers who might be responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity.

5 March 2018: UN Human Rights Council passed a resolution today, calling on war crimes investigators to “urgently conduct a comprehensive and independent inquiry into recent events in Eastern Ghouta” in Syria. The resolution also specifically condemned "the indiscriminate use of heavy weapons and aerial bombardments against civilians, and the alleged use of chemical weapons".

2 March 2018: UN human rights chief Zeid Ra’ad al-Hussein warned that the ongoing siege of Syria’s Eastern Ghouta has likely resulted in "war crimes, and potentially, crimes against humanity”. The government-led siege began on 18 February has resulted in a shortage of food and vital medicine, and has trapped some 400 000 civilians.

1 March 2018: David Schwendiman, Chief Prosecutor of the newly running Kosovo Specialist Chambers, a tribunal in The Hague prosecuting war crimes and crimes against humainty allegedly occurred during the Kosovo War, is being made to leave the job at a critical stage of the tribunal’s work with no designated successor. 

February 2018

22 February 2018: According to Amnesty International, the new campaign of escalated bombings by the Syrian government and its allies in Eastern Ghouta amounts to war crimes. Over the past 3 days, at least 270 civilians have been killed by the strikes and the last humanitarian convoy to arrive was in November 2017.

21 February 2018: UN Special Rapporteurs Agnes Callamard and Niels Melzer are urging the US government to halt the execution of Doyle Hamm, a seriously ill man, stressing that given medical condition, using lethal injection could amount to cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment, and possibly torture.

20 February 2018: Court B of the National Criminal Court of Peru decided yesterday not to apply Alberto Fujimori’s presidential grace. Mr. Fujimori could be tried for his alleged responsibility for the murders of six people in Pativilca, which could amount to crimes against humanity.

19 February 2018: According to Human Rights Watch, Iskander Erimbetov, a businessman from Kazakhstan, has been tortured by the Kazakh authorities while in detention. On 22 January the Almaty City Prosecution Office opened a criminal investigation into the torture allegations.

18 February 2018: Between 20 November 2017 and 31 January 2018, the International Criminal Court has received 1.17 million statements from Afghanistan citizens. The statements include accounts of alleged war crimes committed by both the Taliban, ISIS, the Afghan Security Forces and the US-led coalition.

17 February 2018: US and Britain are divided over what to do with British foreign fighters El Shafee Elsheikh and Alexanda Kotey. While the US diplomats and military officers argue that the two should be returned and tried in the UK, British Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson declared they should never set foot in the country again.

16 February 2018: The Sarajevo state court acquitted Goran Saric of involvement in the 1995 Srebrenica genocide as the court could not determine that the defendant knew about the genocidal intention of the main perpetrators. Goran Saric was a former commander of the Bosnian Serb Interior Ministry’s special police brigade.

15 February 2018: The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court announced on 8 February that her office would open a preliminary examination of the situation in the Philippines. The examination will analyse the crimes allegedly committed in the context of Duterte’s “war on drugs”, which has been re-activated by the government in recent months.

14 February 2018: Interesting blogpost by Joanne Neenan on the role of the International Criminal Court in protecting the rights of children born of rape in war. By analysing the Ongwen case and the crime of forced pregnancy, Neenan considers the ICC’s capacity to recognise their rights and repair the harms against them.  

13 February 2018: Four survivors of the 1990 massacre, which killed about 600 civilians in the St Peter’s Lutheran Church of the Liberian city of Monrovia, are bringing a civil lawsuit before the US district court for the eastern district of Pennsylvania against Moses Thomas. The lawsuit argues that Thomas bears responsibility for the murders in his capacity as head of the military unit.

12 February 2018: Reuters has issued a new report on the massacre of 10 Rohingya men by Myanmar soldiers and villagers in Inn Din. The report states that an order to clear the village had been passed down the military chain of command. Zeid Ra'ad al-Hussein had declared in December that genocide could not be ruled out in Myanmar.

11 February 2018: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights called for urgent international action in Syria, including a referral to the International Criminal Court, following reports of the escalation of violence in the opposition-held Eastern Ghouta and Idlib regions. According to the UN OHCHR, 230 civilians died last week as a result of airstrikes by the Syrian government and its allies.  

10 February 2018: Two British foreign fighters, Alexanda Kotey and El Shafee Elsheikh, have been captured by Syrian Kurdish fighters. According to the US government they likely committed torture and group executions. The victims' families and experts believe they should stand trial in Britain.

09 February 2018: The ICC prosecutor formally announced the preliminary examination into the situations in the Philippines and in Venezuela. The preliminary examination of the situation in the Philippines will analyse crimes allegedly committed since at least 1 July 2016, in the context of the "war on drugs" campaign. The preliminary examination of the situation in Venezuela will analyse crimes allegedly committed since at least April 2017, in the context of demonstrations and related political unrest.

08 February 2018: The ICC is reportedly moving on a complaint accusing Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte of crimes against humanity in relation to the war on drugs. According to President Duterte’s spokesperson, the Philippines has been informed of a preliminary examination to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to establish that the case falls under the ICC’s jurisdiction.

08 February 2018: Polish President Andrzej Duda signed Poland’s new Holocaust bill that would make it illegal to accuse Poland of complicity in crimes committed by Nazi Germany, including the Holocaust. Under the law, use of terms such as “Polish death camps” in relation to Auschwitz and other camps in Nazi-occupied Poland would lead to a fine or a jail sentence of up to three years. The new bill has raised international controversy due to its implications on free speech and historical facts.

07 February 2018: UN war crimes experts are investigating multiple reports that bombs allegedly containing banned chlorine have been used against civilians in the Syrian towns of Saraqeb, Idlib and Douma, Ghouta, at least the sixth time the Syrian regime has allegedly used such weapons. Paulo Pinheiro, chief of the International Commission of Inquiry on Syria, said that sieges in eastern Idlib and Ghouta “involve the international crimes of indiscriminate bombardment and deliberate starvation of the civilian population.”

06 February 2018: Former Bosnian Serb Army chief Ratko Mladic’s defence asked judges at the Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals to annul the verdict sentencing him to life imprisonment for genocide and other crimes, citing medical test results of “both mild cognitive decline and mild dementia”.

05 February 2018: Poland is looking to prosecute 1,600 former Nazi officials accused of war crimes and has submitted 400 requests for assistance to Interpol. Most cases are linked to mass executions and the pacification of Polish villages during the German occupation from 1939 to 1945, as well as crimes against the civilian population during the 1944 Warsaw Uprising.

02 February 2018: A Human Rights Watch report found that armed groups in Benghazi, Libya, are preventing internally displaced families from returning to their home, accusing them of terrorism or supporting terrorism. Some families were tortured, and their property was seized. According to the NGO, such attacks on civilians could amount to war crimes.

01 February 2018: US President Donald Trump has signed an executive order on Tuesday to continue the operations in Guantánamo Bay detention centre, despite widespread allegations of torture and human rights violations. The executive order not only allows for the centre to remain open, but also allows for the US to transport new persons to the facility.

01 February 2018: Interesting blogpost by Toby Cadman on Bangladesh’s failure to investigate the allegations of crimes against humanity involving its State Security Services. Cadman considers the possibility for the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to open a preliminary examination into the situation.

January 2018

31 January 2018: Tomislav Kovac, the former Ministry of Interior of the Republika Srpska, has been indicted by the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina for genocide. He has been charged with participating in a joint criminal enterprise which aimed to exterminate Bosnian Muslims of Srebrenica from 6 July to 1 November 1995.

30 January 2018: UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres met with President Omar al-Bashir on grounds of operational necessity. The UN confirmed that Ban Ki-moon’s policy of keeping absolute minimum contacts with individuals indicted by the International Criminal Court remains unchanged.

29 January 2018: Polish lawmakers have approved a bill to make it a criminal offence to use statements suggesting that Poland bears responsibility for the crimes against humanity committed by Nazi Germany in the death camps during World War Two.

28 January 2018: UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres is again urging the UNSC to refer Syria to the International Criminal Court. The secretary-general called attention on the blocking of aid deliveries and medical care to millions in the country.

27 January 2018: The International Criminal Court’s Prosecutor has repeated her call to Libya to make all necessary steps to immediately arrest and surrender Mr al-Werfalli to the ICC. Al-Werfalli was shown executing 10 persons in Benghazi despite being the subject of an ICC arrest warrant since 15 August 2017.

26 January 2018: Interesting blog post by Milica Kostić on the impact of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Balkans. Kostić analyses the result of the most recent public opinion survey conducted in Serbia and published in December 2017.

26 January 2018: Court B of the National Criminal Court in Peru will rule today on the application of the presidential grace granted to Alberto Fujimori last December. Fujimori had been sentenced in 2009 to 25 years in prison for crimes against humanity.

25 January 2018: The UN mission in Libya demanded the handing over of al-Werfalli to the International Criminal Court after reports of his involvement in the summary executions in front of Benghazi’s Bayaat al-Radwan mosque emerged. The Court has issued an arrest warrant against al-Werfalli last August.

24 January 2018: Human Rights Watch stated that those who ordered or carried out this weekend’s attack on the Intercontinental Hotel in Kabul are responsible for war crimes. According to the UN, attacks in Afghanistan harming civilians have increased sharply in 2017.

24 January 2018: Twenty international human rights organisations have addressed an open letter to George Weah, the president of Liberia, urging his administration to investigate and prosecute war crimes. The Liberian civil wars led to the death of an estimated 250,000 people.  

23 January 2018: The British police is investigating a group of United Arab Emirates officials for torture and cruel treatment inflicted on three Qatari nationals between 2013 and 2015. According to the alleged victims’ lawyer, if they were to enter the UK, the officials may be questioned and arrested under the principle of universal jurisdiction.

22 January 2018: Cases of maritime piracy in Indian Ocean off Somalia coast increased in 2017, as nine attacks were recorded in 2017, up from two in 2016. Somali pirates retain the capacity and intent to launch attacks against merchant vessels hundreds of miles from their coastline, raising fears that sustained attacks could raise insurance and freight costs for importers.

19 January 2018: The families of Japanese abducted by North Korea will present a petition to the International Criminal Court requesting an investigation into the disappearances as a case of crimes against humanity. The aim is to raise international attention about the issue.

18 January 2018: Bangladesh and Myanmar agreed on 16 January 2018 to complete the repatriation of the Rohingya refugees within two years. Amnesty International declared that the “returns cannot be safe or dignified until there is a fundamental change in Myanmar, including accountability for crimes against humanity”.  

17 January 2018: According to FIDH, UN HRC members should urge Mali to prosecute those responsible for committing war crimes and crimes against humanity during the Northern and Central Mali conflict. Even though some trials have taken place, FIDH reports that other cases remain in suspense because of the fragile security situation or their politically sensitive character.

16 January 2018: According to Human Rights Watch, the armed group Al-Shabab has threatened and abducted civilians to force communities to hand over their children for indoctrination and military training in recent months. Conscripting or enlisting children under the age of fifteen into armed forces is a war crime.

15 Januray 2018: The Cape Town Magistrate’s Court has granted a postponement in the Augustinus Kouwenhoven case to wait for extradition documents from the Department of Justice. Mr Kouwenhoven was convicted for crimes against humanity by a Dutch Court and sentenced to 19 years’ imprisonment.

14 Januray 2018: Mr Justice Kerr, passing judgment at the Royal Courts of Justice in London, ruled that a group of 34 veterans of Eoka, the Greek Cypriot nationalist guerrilla organisation, had the right to claim damages to Britain. The veterans allege that they were tortured and subjected to human rights abuses at the hands of British colonial forces during the struggle for independence in the 1950s.

13 Januray 2018: Emilie König is a French citizen who joined ISIL in Syria in 2012 and is allegedly a prominent propagandist and recruiter for the terrorist organisation. Currently detained in the Kurdish Region of Syria, Ms. König pleads to be repatriated and tried in France. The French government stated last week that it favoured having its citizens tried where they are caught.

12 Januray 2018: The centre for constitutional rights and co-counsel filed a motion for order granting writ of habeas corpus on 11 January 2018 against Trump’s Guantanamo policies on behalf of 11 “forever prisoners”. The CCR argues that the petitioners’ perpetual detention and torture violate the Constitution and the Authorization for Use of Military Force.

11 January 2018: According to the latest report of the International Maritime Bureau, there were 180 incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ship in 2017, which is the lowest annual number of incidents since 1995. The report also takes note of the indictment of six Somali pirates in Seychelles who are charged with “committing an act of piracy” and face up to 30 years’ imprisonment.

10 January 2018: German prosecutors declared that a Bosnian man, Milorad Obradovic, was arrested for the purpose of extradition at Munich airport after the Bosnian authorities issued a warrant for his arrest. Mr. Obradovic is suspected of illegally detaining and killing around 120 Bosnian Muslim civilians, which could constitute war crimes, in the village of Miska Glava in July 1992.

09 January 2018: According to a survey by Doctors Without Borders (MSF), at least 6,700 Rohingya were killed by Myanmar’s security forces in the month following the government-led crackdown in the Rhakhine state late August. The government has denied allegations of ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, but it has refused the entry of UN investigators and journalists in the country.

08 January 2018: BBC reported that at least 10 hospitals in rebel-held areas of Syria have suffered, over the past 10 days, direct air or artillery attacks. The attacks on rebel-held Eastern Ghouta have killed at least 25 civilians last week, even though the Syrian government and the Russian military have consistently denied targeting civilian areas.

07 January 2018: The UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) presented its preliminary finding on the suicide attack of 4 January in Kabul, which killed 13 civilians and injured 19. UNAMA found that the “use of indiscriminate explosive devices in civilian populated areas, in circumstances almost certain to cause immense suffering to civilians, may amount to war crimes”.

06 January 2018: Following an attempt in December by lawmakers to extend the jurisdiction of the Kosovo Specialist Chambers to non-nationals, the US, Britain, France, Germany and Italy have called on the Kosovo politicians and lawmakers to “abandon any thought of repealing or re-negotiating any aspect of the law”. The five nations perceive the attempt as calling into question Kosovo’s commitment to the rule of law.

05 January 2018: Interesting blog post by Marissa Brodney and Meritxell Regué on the International Criminal Court’s 15 December 2017 Reparations Decision in the Lubanga case. It explores the ICC’s divergent methods of calculating a convicted person’s monetary liability.

04 January 2018: Ethiopia’s prime minister Hailemariam Desalegn has announced that political prisoners held in Maekelawi, a prison camp notorious for torture, will be released and that the camp will be closed. According to Human Rights Watch, torture and solitary confinement are commonly used in Maekelawi.

04 January 2018: Eshetu Alemu, who was sentenced to life by the Hague District Court on 15 December for war crimes carried out during Ethiopia’s Red Terror purges, is appealing against his conviction. His lawyer argues that the defence was unable to properly investigate the authenticity of documents and that some witnesses could not be questioned.

03 January 2018: Interesting blogpost by Dapo Akande on the Assembly of State Parties’ adoption of three amendments adding to the list of war crimes within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court and the implications of criminalising conduct under the ICC Statute which do not amount to customary international law crimes.

02 January 2018: The independent expert review initiated by the ICTY regarding the passing of Mr. Praljak concluded that the poison could not have been detected before he drank it. Justice Hassan B, Jallow found that “the small size of the object, the limitations in the rules on intrusive searches, and the nature of the screening equipment available … contributed to making it difficult to detect the contraband.”

01 January 2018: The Bosnian state prosecution has indicted on 28 December fourteen former commanders and members of the Bosnian Army, the local Territorial Defence force, the Croatian Defence Council, police and paramilitary groups who took part in the 1992/1993 attacks in the Konjic area and surrounding villages. They are charged with crimes against humanity including murder, torture and sexual violence.

December 2017

28 December 2017: In its 2017 statement on children in conflict, UNICEF declared that children caught in war zones are increasingly being used as weapons of wars, including as child soldiers, suicide bombers, and human shields. The agency called on all parties in conflicts to respect international humanitarian law and end violations against children and targeting of civilian infrastructure.

28 December 2017: The UN Office of the High Commissioner for human rights issued a statement condemning the presidential pardon granted on 24 December to Alberto Fujimori and denouncing it as a “major setback for the rule of law in Peru”. He had been sentenced to 25 years of imprisonment by Peru’s Supreme Court in 2005 for crimes against humanity, murder, and aggravated kidnapping.

27 December 2017: Human Rights Watch reported that Yezidi fighters allegedly forcibly disappeared and killed 52 civilians from the Imteywit tribe in June 2017. The human rights group calls upon the Iraqi criminal justice authorities to investigate and prosecute those responsible, adding that summary executions and torture during an armed conflict constitute war crimes.

27 December 2017: The state court in Sarajevo convicted Azra Bašić was found guilty of crimes against civilians and prisoners of war in Derventa and Polje from April to May 1992. The former member of the Bosnian-Croat forces was sentenced to 14 years of imprisonment.

22 December 2017: UN Secretary General António Guterres described the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia as “a pioneer in creating the contemporary architecture of international criminal justice” during his keynote address at the closing ceremony of the court. He emphasized that the tribunal, which heard testimony from almost 5000 people, gave a voice to victims.

21 December 2017: Belal Betka, an Australian citizen, was charged with incursion into foreign countries with the intention of engaging in hostile activities, and entering and remaining in a declared area. He allegedly travelled to the Raqqa province in Syria between March and July 2015. The region was declared an area where a listed terrorist organisation is engaging in hostile activities on 4 December 2014.

20 December 2017: The “significance of the inclusion of the crime of aggression within the ICC’s remit will not be in the prosecutions that result, but rather in the discussions that ensue, focused on illegal wars, their causes, and when to hold leaders individually responsible for them.” Interesting opinion by Alex Whiting on the activation of the crime of aggression at the ICC: does it matter?

19 December 2017: The German Central Office for the investigation of Nazi crimes has turned over to state authorities 9 new cases involving former guards in Auschwitz, Mauthausen-Gusen, Buchenwald and Ravensbrück. Camp guards have been previously prosecuted under German law for accessory to murder.

18 December 2017: Opinion by Ida Sawyer, the Central Africa director at Human Rights Watch, regarding the UN Committee Against Torture’s concluding observations on Rwanda and following denial by the government. Sawyer calls on the Rwandan government to implement its treaty obligations by investigating the allegations of torture and enforced disappearances.  

17 December 2017: The court of Bukavu which deployed a ‘mobile court’ in Kavumu, DRC convicted 11 Congolese militia members of crimes against humanity for murder and the rape of 37 young children. The 11 accused including Frederic Batumike, the provincial lawmaker and mastermind of the attacks, were sentenced to life in prison.  

16 December 2017: The Hague District Court sentenced on Friday Eshetu Alemu, an aide to former dictator Menthistu, to life in prison for war crimes carried out during Ethiopia’s 1977 “Red Terror” purges. Under Dutch universal jurisdiction laws, the court found the accused guilty on all charges including arbitrary detention, inhumane treatment, torture and mass murder.  

15 December 2017: Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court has issued an additional decision on reparations in the Lubanga case, setting the amount of collective reparation to $10 million. Lubanga was found guilty by the court of the war crimes of conscripting and enlisting children under the age of 15 and using them to participate actively in hostilities.

14 December 2017: A report written by US law firm Cunningham Levy Muse and commissioned by the Rwanda government finds that the French government and its military officials were involved in supplying weapons and providing shelter to the perpetrators of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The Rwandan government calls upon France to declassify all evidence related to the genocide.

13 December 2017: A report by the International Bar Association, Navi Pillay, Thomas Buergenthal and Mark Harmon declares that Kim Jong-un and other North Korean officials should be prosecuted for crimes against humanity. Based on interviews with 103 defectors, the report found that 10 out of the 11 recognized crimes against humanity have been committed in the state’s camps for political prisoners.

12 December 2017: The International Criminal Court Pre-Trial Chamber II found on Monday that Jordan had failed to comply with its obligations under the Rome Statute by failing to arrest President Omar al-Bashir when he visited Amman last March. The Chamber has referred the matter to the UN Security Council and the Assembly of State Parties.

11 December 2017: UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres called on the Congolese authorities on Friday to investigate and punish the perpetrators of the attack which killed 15 Tanzanian UN peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The UN chief said the attack amounted to a war crime and was the worst one on the organisation in recent history.

10 December 2017: Guus Kouwenhoven, a Dutch business man convicted in April of being complicit to the war crimes committed by Charles Taylor forces in Liberia and Guinea, was arrested on Friday in South Africa following a Dutch warrant. According to the Court of Appeal of 's-Hertogenbosch, Kouwenhoven used his two timber companies in Liberia as a cover to smuggle arms between 2000 and 2003.

09 December 2017: The prosecutor of the Tribunal de Grande Instance de Paris has indicted the top Lafarge executives, including its former CEO on terrorist financing charges. The company is accused of having paid ISIL between 2013 and 2014 in order to keep their factory open in Jalabiya in Syria.

08 December 2017: The UN Security Council issued a presidential statement condemning the slave trade of migrants in Libya as heinous abuses of human rights, which it declared “may also amount to crimes against humanity”. The Council called upon the Libyan authorities to conduct an investigation and bring the perpetrators to justice.

07 December 2017: The Assembly of State Parties to the International Criminal Court have elected six new judges for a nine-year term starting in March 2018. The election follows the Court’s judicial election process which replaces a third of the 18 judges every three years.

06 December 2017: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid bin Ra’ad declared before the Human Rights Council that the persecution of Rohingya by Myanmar’s security forces may amount to genocide. He said UN investigators have received "concordant reports of acts of appalling barbarity committed against the Rohingyas" leading to about 626,000 Rohingyas fleeing to Bangladesh.

06 December 2017: Amnesty International calls upon the International Criminal Court to urgently open a preliminary examination regarding Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte’s murderous “war on drugs”. The NGO alleges that the state’s judiciary has proven itself unwilling and unable to hold those responsible for the crimes against humanity to account.

05 December 2017: The International Criminal Court’s prosecutor had declared there is a “reasonable basis” to believe that UK soldiers committed war crimes against persons in their custody during the Iraq conflict. She, however, dismissed the allegations that British troops committed war crimes on the battlefield.

05 December 2017: The prosecutor of the International Criminal Court issued her annual Report on Preliminary Examination Activities. Between October 2016 and November 2017, she completed three preliminary examinations resulting in the decision to seek judicial authorisation to open an investigation regarding Burundi and Afghanistan.

04 December 2017: The state parties of the International Criminal Court will meet from 4 to 14 December at the annual session of the Assembly of State Parties. On the agenda, the states will discuss the 2018 budget, elect six new judges and consider activating the ICC’s authority over the crime of aggression.

03 December 2017: On 22 November, the International Crimes Division of Uganda sitting at the Kampala High Court confirmed in the pre-trial hearing of the Thomas Kwoyelo case, that customary international law is applicable in the domestic courts of Uganda. Kwoyelo, a former commander in the Lord’s resistance army is facing charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity on 93 counts.

02 December 2017: The Highest Regional Court in Celle ruled on 29 November that Oskar Groening, a former Auschwitz guard known as the “bookkeeper of Auschwitz” was fit to go to prison. He had been convicted in 2015 for his role in the murder of 300,000 people during the Holocaust.

01 December 2017: Interesting article by Dieneke de Vos summarising the existing jurisprudence in the context of corporate criminal accountability for international crimes. This post is the latest of Just Security’s series on the upcoming U.S. Supreme Court case Jesner v. Arab Bank.

01 December 2017: The International Criminal Court prosecutor stands by her previous decision not to open a full-scale investigation into the storming by Israel forces of an aid flotilla heading to Gaza in 2010. She found a reasonable basis to believe that war crimes were committed by the Israel Defence Forces, but the act was not of ‘sufficient gravity’ to be admissible before the court.

November 2017

30 November 2017: The Federal Oral Court No. 5 of Buenos Aires sentenced 29 former officials to life in prison on Wednesday for crimes against humanity committed between 1976 and 1983 at the Naval Mechanical School of Argentina. The case documented the former military dictatorship’s widespread practice of killing civilians by throwing them from aircraft.

30 November 2017: Inocente Orlando Montano, a former Salvadoran army colonel has been extradited to Spain to face crimes against humanity and terrorist murder charges relating the 1989 massacre of six Jesuits priests, their housekeeper and her teenage daughter in El Salvador. The US District Court of North Carolina ruled on 21 August 2017 that he could be extradited to Spain to stand trial under universal jurisdiction.

29 November 2017: A new Human Rights Watch report claims that the Venezuelan government has systematically used brutal treatment, including torture, against anti-government protesters and political opponents between April and September 2017.

29 November 2017: Mr. Khattala, a former militia leader from Libya was convicted on Tuesday on four counts— including providing material support for terrorism and conspiracy to do so - for his role in the 2012 attacks in Benghazi, which killed a US ambassador and three other Americans. He was acquitted on 14 other counts, including murder.

28 November 2017: New report by Amnesty International alleges that the oil giant Shell played a part in a brutal campaign by the Nigerian security forces to silence protests in the Ogoniland region in the 1990s. The NGO calls on Nigeria, the UK and the Netherlands to investigate Shell for complicity in murder, rape and torture.

27 November 2017: A blogpost by Marko Milanovic attempts to decipher the judgment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Ratko Mladic case. The accused was found guilty on all counts, except for count 1, genocide in Bosnian municipalities other than Srebrenica. The 2500 pages judgment can be found here and a summary here.

26 November 2017: Ivory Coast’s President Alassane Ouattara called on the International Criminal Court on Saturday to indict criminals who are selling African migrants in Libyan slave markets. He declared that condemning the slave auction was not enough, and that the issue would be on the agenda at the Africa-EU Summit in Abidjan next week.

25 November 2017: Judge Ekaterina Trendafilova, the President of the Kosovo Specialist Chambers, declared the court ready to proceed with its first indictments. The court, based in The Hague, has jurisdiction over crimes against humanity, war crimes and other crimes under Kosovo law, which allegedly occurred between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2000.

24 November 2017: Interesting blogpost by Jens David Ohlin reviewing the judgment of 22 November 2017 by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Mladic case. The blog elaborates on the court’s findings regarding the legal doctrine of joint criminal enterprise in international criminal law.

23 November 2017: The trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court will deliver its decision on 15 December 2017 setting the amount of reparations for which Mr. Lubanga is liable. The Trial Chamber found Lubanga guilty in 2012 of the war crime of the enlistment and conscription of children under the age of 15 into the FPLC, a decision confirmed by the Appeals Chamber in 2014.

22 November 2017: 
On 22 November 2017, Ratko Mladic was found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity during the armed conflict in Bosnia Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995. The Chamber sentenced him to life imprisonment.

22 November 2017: UNHCR report found that multiple men and boys in the Syria crisis were subjected to sexual violence including sexual torture by multiple parties to the conflict. A focus group of refugee women in Jordan estimated that 30 to 40% of all adult men in their community had experienced sexual violence while in detention in Syria. 

21 November 2017: UN Secretary General said in a statement that he was horrified by the reported auctioning of African migrants in Libya as slaves. He added, “Slavery has no place on our world and these actions are among the most egregious abuses of human rights and may amount to crimes against humanity” and asked the relevant UN actors to conduct an investigation.

21 November 2017: The chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court has formally requested on Monday authorisation to investigate alleged crimes in Afghanistan since 2003. The OTP found a reasonable basis to believe that the following crimes occurred: crimes against humanity and war crimes by the Taliban, war crimes by the Afghan National Security Forces, and war crimes by members of the US armed forces and the CIA in secret detention facilities.

20 November 2017: UN secretary-general António Guterres argued that upholding human rights and the rule of law was the safest way to prevent a vicious circle of instability, and unquestionably a part of the solution in fighting terrorism. He called on foreign governments to prosecute foreign fighters who return to their country instead of killing them in combat.

19 November 2017: The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia will pronounce its last judgment in the Mladić case on 22 November 2017 at 10:00. The accused is indicted for two counts of genocide, five counts of crimes against humanity, and four counts of violations of the laws or customs of war. Pending the outcome of the trial, key information and a timeline and of the case can be found here.

18 November 2017: An Amnesty International report released on Friday claims that both the Islamist insurgents and the Philippines’ military forces may have committed war crimes in the Marawi city 5-month battle. The NGO calls for an independent investigation into the conflict during which more than 1,100 people were killed.   

17 November 2017: Luisa Ortega, ex-Prosecutor General of Venezuela, turned over more than 1,000 pieces of evidence to the International Criminal Court, calling upon the Court to open an investigation into President Nicolas Maduro and four other senior officials for alleged crimes against humanity. In 2006, the OTP had declined to open an investigation but added that the decision could be reconsidered in light of new evidence.

16 November 2017: New report by Human Rights Watch found that since 25 August 2017, Myanmar security forces have committed widespread rape and sexual violence against women and girls as part of a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Rohingya Muslims in Burma’s Rakhine State. According to the NGO, these violations amount to crimes against humanity and should be investigated by the International Criminal Court.

16 November 2017: Interesting blogpost by Abel Knottnerus on the jurisprudence of the International Criminal Court regarding Omar al-Bashir’s immunity. The author is a PhD researcher at the University of Groningen working on ‘African Presidents and the International Criminal Court’.

15 November 2017: Guernica 37 IJC presented a dossier to the International Criminal Court seeking an investigation into the role of Khalifa Haftar, the leader of the Libyan National Army, in Libya’s ongoing power struggle. The group alleges that Haftar and his forces have committed crimes against humanity, including extensive destructions, torture and murder.

15 November 2017: The International Criminal Court and the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture have concluded an agreement for the monitoring of conditions of detention of persons sentenced by the Court. President of the Committee, Mykola Gnatovskyy insisted on the importance for international tribunals to “live up to the high standards that they demand of States in upholding individual rights”.

14 November 2017: Dutch women Laura Hansen was convicted on Monday 13 November of preparing and supporting terrorist acts, and sentenced to two years’ imprisonment by the Court of Rotterdam. She had travelled with her husband and two children to Syria and Iraq in September 2015 to support her family while her husband fought for ISIL.

13 November 2017: New Amnesty International report alleges that forces loyal to Bashar al-Assad in Syria have committed international crimes through their “starve or surrender” strategy and sieges that have devastated areas controlled by the opposition. The report claims that the regime’s strategy of systematically preventing crucial food and medicine supplies from entering civilian areas while mounting bombing campaigns amounts to war crimes and crimes against humanity.

12 November 2017: Ugandan President and current chairman of the East African Community Yoweri Museveni has condemned the International Criminal Court’s decision to launch an investigation into the Burundi conflict. At the invitation of Uganda's government, Sudanese president al-Bashir is expected to visit the country this week, despite the ICC’s arrest warrant against him.

11 November 2017: The presiding judge of the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) rejected the pleas of Ratko Mladic’s defence lawyers to postpone the 22 November 2017 judgment. The defence had contended that Mladic, 75, was no longer mentally and physically competent to appear in court.

10 November 2017: More than 50 Tamil men seeking asylum in Europe claim they were abducted, raped and tortured by government forces in Sri Lanka. The Associated Press conducted interviews with 20 men and reviewed 32 medical and psychological evaluations, alleging that they had been accused by a special police unit of trying to revive the Tamil Tigers.

10 November 2017: On 9 November 2017, the Pre-Trial Chamber III of the International Criminal Court issued a public version of its decision authorizing the prosecutor to open an investigation regarding crimes allegedly committed in Burundi by the government and government-linked groups against political foes from 26 April 2015 to 26 October 2017. The Chamber considered that the prosecutor had presented enough evidence of crimes against humanity to merit a formal investigation, including murder, torture, rape and persecution.

09 November 2017: The prosecutor of the International Criminal Court told the UN Security Council on 08 November that the situation in Libya remains dire and promised to seek new arrest warrants if serious crimes continue to be committed. She also demanded the arrest and transfer of the suspects already subject to arrest warrants, including Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, son of former Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi.

08 November 2017: The Netherlands Public Prosecutor’s Office has demanded a life sentence for a 63 year-old man on 8 November 2017, for a series of war crimes including arbitrary detention, torture and killing of opponents of the 1970s revolutionary regime in Ethiopia. The Prosecutor’s Office concluded that the erstwhile Dergue-representative in Gojjam is responsible for an atrocious campaign against real and perceived members of the opposition.   

08 November 2017:
The UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2383 on 7 November 2017 urging the Somali authorities to continue the passing of anti-piracy and maritime laws, to establish security forces with clear roles and jurisdiction to enforce them, as well as to strengthen the capacity of its courts to investigate and prosecute those responsible for piracy. The Security Council also called upon member states to “adopt legislation to facilitate prosecution of suspected pirates off the coast of Somalia”.

07 November 2017: The ballistic missile strike by Houthi-Saleh forces in Yemen on Riyadh’s main international airport on 4 November 2017 is most likely a war crime, Human Rights Watch said today. As a response, the Saudi government has temporarily closed all Yemeni ports, stating that humanitarian aid could continue to enter the country under strict coalition vetting procedures. The NGO calls upon all parties to the conflict to respect the international legal obligation to facilitate humanitarian aid to civilians.

06 November 2017: Ex-Guantanamo detainee Djamel Ameziane is suing the Canadian government, raising further questions about Canada’s complicity in the abuse of detainees at the detention facility. Ameziane was held for more than 11 years until his release in December 2013. The claim alleges that the Canadian security services co-operated with their US counterpart by providing information and conducting interrogations in Guantanamo, despite the widespread allegations that US forces were torturing detainees.

05 November 2017: Agnes Callamard, the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary, and Arbitrary Executions, presented a report on 27 October to the UN General Assembly criticising the international community’s failure to protect the lives of migrants and investigate their deaths. Addressing killings by both State and non-State actors, she declared that the International Criminal Court “should consider preliminary investigation into atrocity crimes against refugees and migrants”.  

04 November 2017: The chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court has announced on Friday that she seeks a judicial authorisation of the pre-trial chamber to investigate allegations of crimes against humanity and war crimes in Afghanistan since 1 May 2003. The investigation would look at crimes allegedly committed by “any party to the armed conflict” meaning, inter alia, armed opposition groups, such as the Taliban, the Afghan government forces, but also the US forces and the CIA.

03 November 2017: A report by the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq found that ISIL fighters executed at least 741 Iraqi civilians in Mosul during the nine-month battle against government forces and committed numerous grave violations of IHL, amounting to international crimes. The report calls upon Iraq to accept the International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction with respect to the specific situation.

03 Novembre 2017: The Cour d’assises of Paris sentenced Abdelkader Merah to 20 years of prison for complicity in terrorism. Merah was found to have helped in the preparation of the 2012 Toulouse attacks committed by his younger brother, Mohamed Merah. A second man, Fettah Malki was sentenced to 14 years for his role in providing the gun, ammunition and a bullet-proof vest to the attacker.

02 Novembre 2017: The Special Prosecution of the Republic of Kosovo announced that there is insufficient evidence to support allegations that agriculture minister Nenad Rikalo tortured ethnic Albanians during the 1990s war. In the event of new evidence coming to light, the Special Prosecution may launch a new investigation into the commission of war crimes.

02 November 2017: Interesting blogpost by Marko Milanovic reflecting on Trump’s recent statements, the relationship between US counterterrorism and international humanitarian law, the concept of “enemy combatant”, and the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.

01 November 2017: Silvia Fernández De Gurmendi, the President of the International Criminal Court, introduced to the UN General Assembly on Monday the ICC’s annual report, which was adopted without a vote. She called for greater cooperation in holding atrocity crime perpetrators accountable, and noted that “the Court is not perfect, but it is working, it has matured, and it is delivering”.

October 2017

31 October 2017: The Guatemalan High Risk Court “C” notified the parties that it would hear the high-profile Molina Theissen case beginning on 1 March 2018. Five retired senior military officers were charged last March with crimes against humanity for the illegal detention, torture, and rape of Emma Molina Theissen and for the enforced disappearance of her 14-year-old brother, Marco Antonio Molina Theissen, in 1981. 

30 October 2017: A Dutch-Ethiopian national goes on trial in The Hague. He is accused of committing war crimes, including ordering the deaths of 75 prisoners and the incarceration and inhumane treatment of 240 people, during purges in Ethiopia known as the “Red Terror” in the 1970s.
 
30 October 2017: On 27 October, Burundi became the first nation ever to leave the International Criminal Court. Despite the move, a preliminary investigation launched by the ICC prosecutor in April 2016 into possible crimes against humanity in Burundi would continue, as its withdrawal does not affect the Court's jurisdiction with regards to crimes alleged to have been committed until 27 October 2017.

27 October 2017: Egypt’s Court of Cassation upheld on Wednesday the sentences of six policemen convicted of torturing Talaat Shabeeeb to death in a Luxor police station, in 2015. The Court confirmed the 7-year jail term of Samir Hani, the main officer, as well as the 3-year jail sentences of the fiver other policemen involved. Moreover, it ordered Major General Magdi Abdul Ghaffar to pay a $85,000 fine.

26 October 2017: The Trump administration imposed new sanctions on eight individuals and a business affiliated with the Islamic State in Yemen and with Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, in the first coordinated action taken with a newly formed centre to combat terrorism financing led by the US and Saudi Arabia. Among the individuals sanctioned on Wednesday were Abu Sulayman al-Adani, the head of the Islamic State’s Yemen affiliate and Nashwan al-Wali al-Yafi’I, the group’s chief financial officer.

25 October 2017: An interesting article on the degree to which contemporary treaty-making envisages the liability of legal persons for international crimes. The author, Sean Murphy, is the UN International Law Commission’s Special Rapporteur for Crimes Against Humanity.

25 October 2017: Amnesty International denounces the ninth Russian veto at the UNSC on Tuesday as “equivalent of a green light for war crimes” in Syria. The veto prevented the renewal of the mandate of the OPCW‘s Joint Investigative Mechanism, which reports on the use of chemical weapons in Syria.

24 October 2017: Hilal Elver, the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food, declared in a press release that famine can constitute a war crime or a crime against humanity, if it comes from deliberate action of the State or other players. After noting that more civilians die from hunger related to conflicts than in direct combat, she added that “it is crucial that the international community understands that it is an international crime to intentionally block access to food, food aid, and to destroy production of food.”

23 October 2017: Hearings in Ethiopian war crimes case will begin on 30 October before the Hague Court of First Instance in The Netherlands. The accused has already been sentenced to death in Ethiopia for the murder of suspected opponents of the Dergue-regime of Colonel Mengistu in the late 70s. He has been charged with war crimes, but also with acts of torture, the killing of 75 young prisoners, as well as the incarceration and inhumane treatment of 240 people.

23 October 2017: An interesting blog post on the crime of aggression and its legal framework under the Kampala Amendments. The author, Astrid Reisinger Coracini is a Lecturer at the University of Salsburg and the Director of the Salzburg Laz School on International Criminal Law, Humanitarian Law and Human Rights Law.

22 October 2017: US veterans filed a lawsuit in the Columbia District Court last Tuesday against five big pharmaceutical firms for funding terrorist organizations in Iraq. The suit, filed by more than 100 veterans for injuries sustained in combatting terrorist forces in Iraq, accuses the firms of violating the Anti-Terrorism Act by giving medicine and medical devices to Sadrists to sell in Iraq through the corrupt Iraqi Ministry of Health.

22 October 2017: The UN subcommittee on Prevention of Torture has suspended a visit to Rwanda, citing obstructions imposed by the government and fears that interviewees would suffer reprisals. Rwandan authorities barred the delegation from accessing some detention sites and made it impossible for them to conduct private and confidential interview, thus preventing it to fulfil its mandate under OPCAT.

21 October 2017: A new report of the International Maritime Bureau has revealed that a total of 121 incidents of piracy and armed robbery have been reported against ships in the first nine months of this year. The report lauded the effort of the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency for preventing an attack off Pulau Yu and detaining ten hijackers.

20 October 2017: The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia has scheduled its judgment in the trial of Ratko Mladic on 22 November 2017. Mladic has been charged with the commission of genocide, crimes against humanity and violations of the laws and customs of war, for his alleged role in the Srebrenica massacre in July 1995. The Mladic judgment will be the last one delivered by the ICTY before the Tribunal’s closure on 31 December 2017.

19 October 2017: The US Federal Court in Philadelphia has found Mohammed Jabbateh, or Jungle Jabbah, guilty of two counts of fraud and two counts of perjury for lying to US government officials about his role as a combatant in the Liberian Civil War. Human rights groups welcomed the decision and called for the creation of a special court in Liberia to prosecute those responsible for war crimes during the 1989-1996 war.

18 October 2017: Amnesty International published a new report accusing Myanmar’s security forces of committing crimes against humanity on the Rohingya population of the northern Rakhine State. The NGO has documented the following crimes against humanity: unlawful killings, deportation and forcible displacement, torture, rape and other forms of sexual violence, persecution based on ethnic and religious grounds, and other inhumane acts.

17 October 2017: Russian citizen Maxim Lapunov alleges that he was kidnaped and tortured for 12 days in Chechnya’s ‘gay purge’. Activists have called on the Russian government, so far unsuccessfully, to investigate the actions of the Chechen authorities which they believe amount to crimes against humanity.

16 October 2017: The NGO International Policy Group has petitioned the International Criminal Court calling for the investigation of Kenyan opposition leader Raila Odinga and his running mate Kalonzo Musyoka. The IPG alleges that they have intended to incite and instigate “the crimes of murder, torture, persecution, forceful evictions, rape and damage to public and private property”.

15 October 2017: Adeline Rwigara, mother of Diane Rwigara, told the Nyarugenge Intermediate Court that she had been victim of torture when she was in police custody. Adeline, Diane and her sister are being charged with inciting insurrection and “discrimination and sectarianism”. Diane Rwigara tried to challenge the Rwandan leader Paul Kagame in the 2017 August elections, criticising the human rights record of the regime.

14 October 2017: Ahmed al-Darbi, a Saudi detainee in the Guantanamo Bay wartime prison, was sentenced to 13 years in prison for his admitted role in a 2002 terrorist attack by Al Qaeda on a French oil tanker off the Yemeni coast. Mr. Darbi pleaded guilty in 2014 and cooperated as a witness with the US government.

13 October 2017: A Human Rights Watch report details credible evidence of 11 cases of serious abuse in detention in Turkey, all but one within the past seven months. The human rights group alleges that people accused of links with terrorism or with the 2016 military attempt have been tortured in police custody, while others have been abducted.

12 October 2017: The trial against former Guatemalan dictator José Efraín Ríos Montt for the Maya Ivil genocide is set to restart on Friday 13 October. In 2013, the High Risk Tribunal A had found Ríos Montt guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity, but the Constitutional Court had then vacated the ruling in a controversial split decision.

11 October 2017: Human Rights Watch report alleges widespread and systematic torture by the Rwandan military and accuses the judges of being complicit in the creation of a culture of impunity for the armed forces. The military uses arbitrary arrest, and in many cases torture, to force confessions out of suspects accused of crimes against state security and terrorism.

10 October 2017: The Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina acquitted yesterday Bosnian Muslim Commander Naser Oric of war crimes against Serbs during the 1992-95 war. He had been accused of killing three Bosnian Serb prisoners near Srebrenica in 1992. In 2006, the ICTY Trial Chamber had convicted Oric of failing to prevent men under his command of killing and mistreating Bosnian Serb prisoners, but the conviction was quashed on appeal in 2008.

09 October 2017: A OPCW inquiry found that sarin was used in a March attack in Syria on Latamneh, an opposition-held town, and injured around 70 people. The report by the OPCW Syria Fact Finding Mission is due to be finalized within weeks and given to the Joint Investigative Mechanism on Syria, the UN war crimes investigators.

08 October 2017: Human Rights Watch reports that armed groups in the Central African Republic have used rape and sexual slavery as a tactic of war across the country during the nearly five years of conflict. The high levels of sexual violence, which could amount to war crimes, crimes against humanity and torture, underline the importance of getting the newly established Special Criminal Court up and running.

07 October 2017: Christine Rivière, a French woman, was sentenced on Friday to 10 years by the Paris correctional tribunal, for conspiracy in view of preparing terrorist acts. She had morally and financially encouraged her son’s radicalization as he left to Syria in 2013. Rivière was arrested in July 2014 when she was allegedly preparing to move permanently to Syria after three previous visits to her son in ISIS-held areas.

06 October 2017: The International Criminal Court released a statement on the recent media allegations concerning the former Chief Prosecutor Luis Moreno Ocampo and staff members of the ICC Office of the Prosecutor. The current Prosecutor, Fatou Bensouda, has reported the allegations to the Independent Oversight Mechanism, which determined that the matter will proceed to a full investigation.

05 October 2017: On 2 October 2017, the trial of Liberian Mohammed Jabbateh, nicknamed Jungle Jabbah, began in Philadelphia. Jabbateh is not, strictly speaking, charged with war crimes, as he stands accused of failing to disclose his criminal actions during the Liberian civil war to US immigration authorities. Nevertheless, in order to prove that he lied about his role during the war, the prosecutors will have to establish that he committed, ordered, or oversaw the commission of war crimes.

04 October 2017: Following a Syrian soldier’s conviction in Sweden for war crimes, Swedish investigators are pursuing cases against an additional 13 people, says Human Rights Watch. German authorities are also investigating 17 people suspected of crimes in Syria and Iraq, under universal jurisdiction.  

03 October 2017: Janet Benshoof, President of Global Justice Center, advocates a referral of the Rakhine situation to the International Criminal Court, either by the UNSC or by Myanmar's government. As Myanmar’s 2008 Constitution guarantees the military total immunity for the crimes it commits, she argues that a self-referral to the ICC is the only way Myanmar can comply with its obligations under the Geneva and Genocide Conventions.

02 October 2017: Human Rights Watch has accused Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps of recruiting Afghan immigrant children to fight in Syria. Under Article 8 of the International Criminal Court’s Statute, recruiting children under the age of 15 to participate actively in hostilities is a war crime.

01 October 2017: Ismael Habib, a Canadian national from Quebec, was sentenced to 9 years for attempting to leave Canada to participate in terrorist activity. He had been found guilty in June of attempting to join ISIS.

September 2017


30 September 2017: The UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution establishing a group of international experts to investigate war crimes and violations of international humanitarian law by all parties in the Yemeni civil war. The group of experts has been given a year-long mandate to report on any abuses in Yemen from September 2014 onwards.

29 September 2017: The Australian House of Representative’s Federation Chamber has called on the Australian government to investigate and prosecute Australians who have committed sexual and gender-based war crimes and crimes against humanity, as members of ISIS or other international terrorist groups. The chambers also calls on the government to support international efforts to gather evidence, investigate and prosecute those responsible for international crimes perpetrated by ISIS.

28 September 2017: Human Rights Watch accuses Burmese security forces of committing crimes against humanity against the Rohingya population and requests targeted sanctions as well as an arms embargo on the Burmese military. The NGO urges the UN Security Council to demand that Burma allow aid agencies access to people in need, permit entry to a UN fact finding mission to investigate abuses, and ensure the safe and voluntary return of those displaced. Measures to bring those responsible before the International Criminal Court should also be discussed.

27 September 2017: A former Serbian paramilitary commander with Australian dual citizenship has been sentenced to 15 years for war crimes by the Court of Split in Croatia. Dragan Vasiljkovic was found guilty of torturing detainees in the rebel stronghold of Knin and orchestrating a deadly attack on the town of Glina, during the Croatian war of independence.

27 September 2017: Professor M. Cherif Bassiouni, the ‘father of international criminal law’ and Nobel Peace Prize, passed away on Monday, at the age of 79. Prof. Bassiouni’s work changed the face of international criminal law and led, inter alia, to the creation of the International Criminal Court.  

26 September 2017: Three NGOs have filed a lawsuit in Paris against the French bank BNP Paribas, alleging that it knowingly approved a transfer of $1.3 million from the Rwandan central bank to an arms dealer during the Rwandan genocide in 1994, despite the UN arms embargo. The public prosecutor has opened an investigation into allegations of complicity in genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes.

26 September 2017: Following a criminal complaint by TRIAL International, Switzerland opened a war crimes investigation into Rifaat al-Assad, an uncle of Bashar al-Assad in 2013. Four years later, the NGO and the complainants’ lawyers are challenging the Office of the Attorney General and denouncing a denial of justice for their clients.  

25 September 2017: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein called torture not only “deeply wrong” but also counterproductive from an interrogator’s perspective. The OCHCR is planning to co-create a Manual on Investigative interviewing, with the UN’s Police Division.

24 September 2017: The Sessions Court of Kuala Terengganu in Malaysia sentenced eleven Indonesian pirates to 16 years of jail for attempting to hijack an oil tanker of the coast of Malaysia. A report by the International Maritime Bureau found that there were three attacks by pirates in Malaysian waters in the first half of 2017.

23 September 2017: Amnesty International criticised the current systematic approach to victims’ participation at the International Criminal Court, echoing a Human Rights Watch report. It called for a new approach to policy for victims’ legal representation to prevent a further drift away from ensuring victims’ views and concerns are given the priority they deserve when it comes to decisions about their legal representation.

22 September 2017: The UN Security Council authorised the establishment of an investigation team to support Iraq’s domestic efforts to hold ISIL accountable for acts that may amount to war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide committed in the country. According to the unanimously adopted resolution, the team will consist of both international and domestic experts who will work on “equal footing”, with an initial mandate of two years.

21 September 2017: Four Palestinian human rights groups have submitted a 700-page communication to the International Criminal Court, alleging that high-level Israeli officials have been complicit of committing war crimes and crimes against humanity in the Israeli-occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem. In a statement, the groups urged the ICC Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda to open a full investigation into the situation in the occupied Palestinian territory.

20 September 2017: A U.N. Commission of Inquiry urged the International Criminal Court to investigate possible crimes against humanity committed in Burundi during the country’s two-year crisis. The abuses include torture, extrajudicial executions, enforced disappearances and rape.

19 September 2017: Former Chief prosecutor of the ICTY and ICTR Carla Del Ponte resigned from the U.N. Commission of Inquiry because of a lack of political backing. Del Ponte reported that enough evidence existed to convict President Bashar al-Assad of war crimes but that the deadlock in the U.N. Security Council led to “seven years of crime in Syria and total impunity”. 

18 September 2017: Kosovo’s Supreme Court upheld the verdict convicting ten ex-members of the Kosovo Liberation Army of crimes of torture against civilians during the 1998-99 conflict. The convicted men were all members of the ‘Drenica Group’, including former security chief and ambassador Syleman Selimi.

17 September 2017: France’s highest court ruled that the researcher Francois Graner could be denied access to sensitive archives from the Mitterrand presidency concerning the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. The Court said that a law protects presidential archives for 25 years following the death of a head of state. Even though Francois Hollande had announced in 2015 the declassification of the archives on Rwanda for the period of 1990-95, the Mitterrand archives will not become available before 2021.

16 September 2017: Amnesty International released new evidence of an “orchestrated campaign of systematic burnings” by Myanmar security forces targeting dozens of Rohingya villages over the last three weeks. Tirana Hassan, Amnesty International's crisis response director, has declared that the clear and systematic pattern of abuse operated by the security forces amounts to crimes against humanity.

15 September 2017: A Syrian asylum-seeker and former fighter with Damascus' government  forces has been charged with war crimes in Sweden on suspicion that he posed in front of dead or wounded combatants from the Islamic State group in January 2014. His trial is scheduled to start in Stockholm on September 18.

14 September 2017:  In a new report, Amnesty International says that today more than 20,000 survivors of wartime sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina are being denied justice. The report reveals the horrifying consequences of these crimes and the inexcusable obstacles preventing victims to have access to the support they need and the legal redress they are entitled to.

13 September 2017:  Metropolitan police's war crimes unit, SO15, has begun a preliminary assessment of the evidence following a request to investigate allegations that United Arab Emirates (UAE) security officials and politicians authorised the torture of three Qatari citizens in the UAE. The three complainants were detained on arrival in the UAE in 2013 and 2014 and eventually released in early 2015.

13 September 2017:  Human Rights Watch reported that the Saudi-led coalition carried out five apparently unlawful airstrikes in Yemen since June 2017, killing 16 children among 39 civilians. Such attacks amount to war crimes, whether carried out deliberately or recklessly, and show that the promises to improve compliance with international humanitarian law made by the coalition have not brought better protection, in particular for children. The United Nations should immediately take action and respond to continuous violations and crimes committed by all parties to the conflict by creating an independent, international investigation into abuses at its September session.

12 September 2017:  Zeid Ra'ad al Hussein, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, said on Monday that Venezuelan security forces may have committed crimes against humanity against protesters. He called for an international investigation into the events and said the government was using criminal proceedings against opposition leaders, arbitrary detentions, excessive use of force, ill-treatment of detainees, torture.

11 September 2017:  A powerful article and interesting opinion on the dramatic situation of the Rohingya population in Myanmar and Aung Suu Kyi's conduct.

11 September 2017:  The fight against terrorism 16 years after the 9/11 attacks. A perspective on how the United States' counterterrorism efforts have developed during the years and where they stand today.

10 September 2017:  Two of five men arrested as part of an investigation into the banned neo-Nazi group National Action have been released without charge. The men, including four serving soldiers, were held on suspicion of terror acts last week. All suspects were arrested on suspicion of being concerned with the commission, preparation and instigation to acts of terrorism under the 2000 Terrorism Act. They were also arrested on suspicion of being members of a proscribed organization under the Terrorism Act.

9 September 2017:  In a report issued on Monday 4 September 2017, the United Nations accused the government of Burundi of severe human rights violations and the commission of crimes against humanity. The Burundi government rejects the accusations.

9 September 2017:  Press conference held on 5 September 2017 by Ms Catherine Marchi-Uhel, Head of the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to assist in the investigation and prosecution of persons responsible for the most serious crimes under international law in the Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011.

8 September 2017:  A Rwandan man was charged on 6 September over genocide accusations in Sweden. He allegedly is responsible for the murder, attempted murder, rape and abduction of members of the Tutsi ethnic group in April and May 1994.

8 September 2017:  Alleged members of a banned neo-Nazi group and serving members of the British Army have been arrested on suspicion of being concerned with the commission, preparation and instigation of acts of terrorism under the 2000 Terrorism Act; on suspicion of being members of a proscribed organisation, National Action. The arrests come months after a far-right terror cell was uncovered in the German army.

7 September 2017:  In a new report, Human Rights Watch said under President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, Egypt's regular police and National Security officers routinely torture political detainees with techniques including beatings, electric shocks, stress positions, and at times rape. Such widespread and systematic torture may amount to a crime against humanity.

6 September 2017:  On Tuesday, a French woman whose radicalised son fought in Syria, where he allegedly died, stood trial accused of financing terrorism. Appearing before the Paris Criminal Court Nathalie Haddadi and her younger son both face charges of aiding and financing terrorism. A second man, a friend of Haddadi's deceased son, is also on trial. Haddadi has persistently held that the charges against her are unfounded. It appears her son had developed radicalised views after serving prison time in France in 2014.

5 September 2017:  A United States Federal court has dismissed a lawsuit against pro-Israeli American donors accused of contributing to war crimes and ethnic cleansing in Palestine, having financed, encouraged and deliberately collaborated with settlement officials in the commission of violence. The judge ruled the issues raised where beyond the court jurisdiction.

5 September 2017:  Forensic architects are using new methods to expose state violence, war crimes and human rights violations. It has historically been difficult for investigators, journalists and architects to access sites where violence has occurred. Today social media offers forensic architects a source of documentary evidence on the basis of which a narrative of acts of violence can be built. The emergence of forensic architecture as a discipline signals the crucial feature of temporary conflicts: the fact that these take place with cities, affecting the civilian population.

4 September 2017:  The moving story of Yazidi thirteen-year-old Emad Tammo, abducted by extremists and held in captivity for three years before being found beneath the wreckage of Mosul's Old City at the beginning of July. He has been reunited with his family and is now adjusting to his new life in Canada. The Yazidi community in Sinjar, north-western Iraq, was targeted by extremists in 2014. Its members have been victims of unimaginable cruelty. Thousands were kidnapped, tortured, killed, sold as slaves, died of dehydration and exhaustion as they tried to escape the onslaught. The United Nations has deemed their ordeal an ongoing genocide, and war crimes and crimes against humanity have been committed against them. Emad's reunification with his family shows there is always hope. It shows the need for the international community and countries all over the world to take action to prevent atrocities from happening as well as to offer victims safety.

3 September 2017:  The Basic Court in Prizren, Kosovo, issued a 30-day detention order for Bogdan Mitrovic, suspected of having committed war crimes against the civilian population and serious violations of the laws and customs of non-international armed conflicts in the Suhareka/Suve Reka area of Kosovo in the spring of 1999.

2 September 2017:  The importance of breaking the cycle of impunity and holding accountable those who committed torture. Why the lawsuit against psychologists James Elmer Mitchell and John 'Bruce' Jessen who designed the pst-9/11 CIA torture program matters and why its extreme brutality and the horror it caused shall not be forgotten.

1 September 2017:  An article on high-impact, low-cost terrorism across Europe. Attacks of such kind pose a new challenge for governments, which have developed strategies to target the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria's (ISIS) revenue sources since 2014 and are now to adapt and implement new ways to stop small dollar flows contributing to ISIS terrorist attacks.

August 2017

31 August 2017:  The United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein expressed alarm at the violence and the incitement to further violence in the north of Rakhine State since the recent attacks on security forces in three northern townships of the state. He called all sides to adhere to and respect human rights law.

30 August 2017:  Jagath Jayasuriya, a former Sri Lankan general accused of war crimes by human rights groups, left Brazil, where until recently he held the position of ambassador. The suits against him are based on Jayasuriya's role as a commander in the final phase of Sri Lanka's civil war in 2009. They allege he oversaw military units that attacked hospitals and killed, disappeared and tortured thousands of people.

29 August 2017:  Human Rights Watch published a report that compares the way victims' lawyers were selected in one ongoing trial before the International Criminal Court (ICC) to broader trends in court practice. It found that the ICC practice falls short of ensuring victims' views are adequately considered in the decisions on whether and how to organize their legal representation.

28 August 2017:  What should justice look like after the Islamic State? An article by Nadim Houry, Human Rights Watch Director of the Terrorism and Counterterrorism Program, illustrates the challenges of the judiciaries in Iraq and Syria and the issues caused by the enforcement of wide reaching counterterrorism laws. Given the scale and nature of the crimes committed by the Islamic State, the articles suggests efforts to introduce international crimes into Iraqi and Syrian law should be a priority.

27 August 2017:  Afghanistan is under pressure by human rights activists to expand its anti-torture laws enacted months ago to permit victims of abuses by security forces to seek compensation and restitution. An annex to the legislation would allow victims to take governmental forces before a civil court. As of now, it is for the state to investigate and prosecute members of its own forces accused of torture, something that activists and investigators say happen rarely.

26 August 2017:  The attack on a Shi'ite mosque in Kabul on Friday that caused the death of at least 28 people may amount to a war crime, United Nations officials and Human Rights Watch said. More than 50 people were wounded, including women and children, and the number of casualties may still rise.

25 August 2017:  33-year old Mohammad Abdullah, a Syrian man suspected of committing war crimes in Syria, has been placed by Swedish authorities in pre-trial detention. Formal charges should be filed before September 7.

24 August 2017:  The United Nations Assistance Mission to Iraq published a report on Tuesday 22 August 2017 urging the Iraqi government to ensure the protection of those individuals sexually victimized by Islamic State forces. According to the report, thousands of women and girls have been the victims of physical and mental abuses as a result of the atrocities committed against them. While the government has taken some positive steps to address this dramatic situation, the report calls on the state to ensure access to justice and effective remedies for victims, proper reintegration into society and prevention from discrimination of those perceived as affiliated with the Islamic State.

23 August 2017:  Interesting article on INTERPOL's history and role, and the fear of 'red notices' being misused to target innocent people and silence authoritarian regimes' opponent. Would there be the need for external scrutiny?

23 August 2017:  The United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) released a report on Sunday on the human rights violations committed during attacks on the Mirza Olang village earlier this month. At least 36 people were killed by Taliban and local Islamic State's fighters. While UNAMA verified the killings and the separation of women and children, it could not verify claims of beheadings, abductions of women and sexual assaults, and further investigation is needed. According to the report, the acts committed may amount to war crimes.

22 August 2017:  In a letter addressed to the United Nations Secretary General, six human rights organizations expressed grave concerns about the rapid deterioration of the security situation in the Central African Republic (CAR). Since the start of the year, more than 800 civilians have been killed. Lewis Mudge, a researcher with Human Rights Watch in the CAR, speaks about the country's conditions.

22 August 2017:  A United States judge has cleared the way for CoI Inocente Orlando Montano, suspected of having killed six Jesuit priests in El Salvador in 1989, to be extradited to Spain to stand trial under Spain's universal jurisdiction law.

21 August 2017:  On Friday, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia announced that it has terminated proceedings against Jovo Ostojic, after he died on June 30 this year, and ordered the cancellation of an arrest warrant against him. Ostojic was charged alongside Vjerica Radeta and Petar Jojic of being in contempt of court for threatening and interfering with witnesses at Vojislav Seselj's trial.

20 August 2017:  Australian police charged three men with committing terrorist acts on suspicion of starting fires at a Shiite Muslim mosque in Melbourne last year. Two of the men were already in custody and awaiting trial on suspicion of plotting bomb attacks in Melbourne, while a third was arrested on Saturday. All face a maximum penalty of life imprisonment over the arson attack at the Imam Ali Islamic Centre in December 2016.

20 August 2017:  The general command of the Libyan National Army (LNA) said on Thursday that Mahmoud al-Werfalli had been arrested and was being investigated by a military prosecutor. The arrest comes after the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued a warrant for Werfalli last week accusing the suspect of murder as a war crime.

19 August 2017:  Jean Twagiramungu, a Rwandan man accused of helping masterminding the genocide in the former Gikongoro Prefecture, was extradited from Germany on Friday. He was arrested in Frankfurt two years ago and had since been battling extradition.

19 August 2017:  New evidence of the atrocities committed by Japan's Unit 731 during World War II were released on Friday 18 August 2017.

19 August 2017:  An article depicting the dramatic situation of the Yazidi minority in Iraq and the cause of Ms Murad, victim of the horror perpetrated by the Islamic State and now crusading to obtain justice and promote accountability.

18 August 2017:  The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) announced on 17 August 2017 a settlement in a lawsuit against two psychologists who designed the torture techniques three former CIA prisoners were victims of.

17 August 2017:  The International Criminal Court on Thursday found that Ahmad Al Faqi is liable for individual and collective reparations for overseeing the destruction of cultural heritage sites in Timbuktu. The Court found he is liable for 2.7 million euros in expenses. The order stresses the fundamental importance of cultural heritage.

16 August 2017:  On Wednesday 16 August 2017, Iraq asked for the international community's assistance to collect and preserve evidence of crimes perpetrated by Islamic State's militants. It said it is working with the United Kingdom to draft a United Nations Security Council resolution to establish the investigation.

16 August 2017:  A report from the International Centre for the Study of Violent Extremism details the unimaginably horrific torture methods and abuses endured by those fallen into the Islamic State's hands. For a brief article summarising the report, see here.

15 August 2017:  The International Criminal Court issued a warrant of arrest for Mahmoud Mustafa Busayf Al-Werfalli. He is allegedly responsible for murder as a war crime in the context of seven incidents, involving 33 persons, during the non-international armed conflict in Libya.

14 August 2017:  The United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Syria has gathered enough evidence for President Bashar al-Assad to be tried and convicted for the commission of international crimes, a member of the Commission said. While the Syrian government denies reports by the Commission documenting widespread war crimes, the Commission chronicled incidents such as chemical weapons attacks, acts of genocide against Iraq's Yazidi population, siege tactics, the bombing of aid convoys. All parties to the conflict have allegedly committed war crimes, and all have been investigated.

13 August 2017:  The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled that Judge Scott Silliman should have recused himself in a case concerning multiple defendants who were charged with aiding in the 9/11 terror attacks. The petitioner Khalid Sheikh Mohammed argued that the judge was biased in the matter.

13 August 2017:  An investigation conducted by the Myanmar government found no crimes against humanity took place during the violence in Rakhine state last year. Allegations of ethnic cleansing and gang rapes were denied, and while the occurrence of some crimes was acknowledged, they were attributed to individual members of security forces.

12 August 2017:  Senior European commission officials warned of Britain's urgent need for clarifying its position on security issues in order to avoid the risk to miss out on vital new counter-terrorism tools. The British government's ambiguity on how it plans to fit into Europe's evolving security apparatus leaves doubts as to what kind of cooperation will be possible in the future.

11 August 2017:  On 9 August 2017, Burundi's National Assembly adopted a bill on the setting up of the National Observatory for the Prevention and Eradication of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity. The body will have the function of clarifying and identifying all crimes committed in the country, monitoring the development of Burundian society in regards to international crimes, preventing and eradicating acts of genocidewar crimes and other crimes against humanity, as well as proposing measures to effectively combat impunity. It will also promote and enforce legislation addressing international crimes, suggest victims' rehabilitation policies and contribute to the implementation of a program of awareness-raising and education for peace and national reconciliation.

10 August 2017:  Fares A. B., a Syrian 29-year-old man thought to have committed war crimes in his home country, has been arrested and detained in Germany. He is suspected of being a member of the Islamic State and of abusing at least three prisoners, repeatedly hitting another victim in the head and shooting and killing a man for alleged blasphemy in a public execution before leaving the man's body on display.

10 August 2017:  Colombia's transitional justice system received the case files of 12,000 alleged military war criminals. About 4,500 soldiers currently in prison have requested to be included in the transitional justice mechanism that would permit them to leave jail while awaiting to be tried, while the Defence Ministry has sent another 7,494 case files of military members who were either convicted or investigated on war crimes charges. In addition, the system is facing a number of legal issues, among which those arising from the case of the more than 4,000 extrajudicial executions conducted by the military under former President Alvaro Uribe, as the acts have been qualified in different ways. The transitional justice system was approved earlier this year and is currently choosing the judges and international assistant judges. The justice process is expected to take force in October.

9 August 2017:  The United Nations calls for more troops to be deployed in the Central African Republic as clashes renew. O'Brien, the United Nations aid chief, said the situation shows the early warning signs of a genocide.

8 August 2017:  A Mumbai court sentenced 16 Somali pirates to seven years in prison for hijacking a fishing vessel that had sailed from Iran in 2011 and taking the crew hostage. The pirates are to be deported to Somalia once they serve their prison terms.

7 August 2017:  Carla del Ponte, member of the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Syria, said on Sunday 6 August 2017 she will leave the Commission due to the lack of political backing from the United Nations Security Council, which she said renders the Commission's job impossible.

7 August 2017:  On Friday 4 August 2017, Ntabo Ntaberi Sheka was handed over to the Congolese authorities in Kinshasa after he turned himself in to the United Nations peacekeeping forces in North Kivu at the end of July.

6 August 2017:  The defence team for Staff Sgt. Robert Bales, sentenced to life without parole for the murder of 16 Afghans, plans to raise the possible use of controversial malaria drug as justification for the crimes committed. The drug may have allegedly caused potential long-term neurological damage and serious psychiatric side effects. Defence attorneys hope this could persuade judges to lessen Bales' sentence.

6 August 2017:  A Rwandan man who sought asylum in the United States after claiming of fleeing the country due to the genocide was charged by United States prosecutors with immigration fraud and perjury. Jean Leonard Teganya, 46 years old, reached the United States in 2014 where he applied for asylum, lying about having been part of the political party that led the killing during the genocide in 1994. If convicted, he could face up to 10 years in prison.

5 August 2017:  Former Gambian interior minister Ousman Sonko will remain in Swiss detention for another three months after the country's attorney general broadened an investigation into whether he committed crimes against humanity. Sonko has been in pre-trial detention since January, after Trial International filed a criminal complaint accusing him of torture. Sonko was interior minister from 2006 to 2016, when he fled to Sweden and then to Switzerland, where he applied for asylum in November and was taken into custody in January.

4 August 2017:  At the third year marking the anniversary of the Yazidi genocide in Iraq, Islamic State (ISIS) members have yet to be brought to justice for war crimes and crimes against humanity. While it is unclear how many suspected ISIS fighters are in custody in Iraq, human rights groups have documented the deplorable and inhumane conditions of the detention facilities where the suspects are imprisoned. A resolution has been presented to the United Nations Security Council for an independent investigation to collect evidence of the atrocities committed against Iraqis by ISIS.

4 August 2017:  On Thursday, the United Nations Commission of Inquiry on Syria said the Islamic State is continuing to commit genocide against the Yazidi minority in Iraq, situation which remains largely unaddressed. Thousands of Yazidi remain missing and some 3'000 women and girls in Syria are subject to horrific violence.

3 August 2017:  Earlier this month, reports announced the planned closure of the United States' Department Office of Global Criminal Justice (GCJ). The Office is tasked with advising the Secretary of States and the government on the prevention of and response to international crimes. For an overview of the reasons why the office should not be closed, click here.

2 August 2017:  The militant group Hezbollah gathered dozens of foreign journalists to their mountain bases on the border between Lebanon and Syria with a view to show the way it triumphed in the area. Among other things, it addressed the policies adopted by the United States in the fight against terrorism.

1 August 2017:  A High Court in the United Kingdom ruled that former Prime Minister Tony Blair will not be prosecuted for the invasion of Iraq in 2003. The court held that the crime of aggression Blair is accused of committing does not exist under English and Welsh law and therefore he cannot be charged.

July 2017

31 July 2017:  An Argentinian court sentenced four former federal judges to life in prison for the commission of crimes against humanity during the country's 1976-1983 dictatorship. The judges were originally charged as accomplices for failure to investigate the kidnapping, torture and murder of dissenters. They were subsequently tried as principals on the basis of the fact their inaction preceded the disappearance of more than 20 dissidents.

30 July 2017:  In the United States, a federal court judge refused to drop a lawsuit against two psychologists who helped devise the C.I.A.'s interrogation program after 9/11, clearing the way for the case to proceed to trial in September. The three plaintiffs had argued that they were detained and tortured in C.I.A.'s detention facilities using techniques designed by the two former military psychologists, who served as C.I.A.'s contractors.

29 July 2017:  An Iraqi army division trained by the United States (US) government allegedly executed several dozens prisoners in Mosul's Old City, Human Rights Watch said. The organisation calls for the US government to suspend all assistance and support to the 16th Division pending Iraq's full investigation of the allegations and appropriate prosecution.

29 July 2017:  Fugitive rebel leader Ntabo Ntaberi Sheka surrendered to the United Nations forces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) on 26 July 2017. He is wanted for crimes against humanity, including the mass rape of at least 378 civilians in the eastern DRC between 30 July and 2 August 2010.

28 July 2017:  Egypt established a national council for combating terrorism, giving it broad authority to set policies to fight extremism. The council is chaired by Sisi and includes the head of parliament, the prime minister, the head of Al-Azhar and several ministers.

27 July 2017:  The European Court of Justice (ECJ) overruled the General Court's view of 2014 that the Council of the European Union had insufficient evidence to maintain asset freezes and travel bans on Hamas. The lower court had found that the listing of Hamas as a terrorist organisation was based on media and internet reports rather than decisions by a competent authority. However, the ECJ said such decisions were not required for groups to stay on the list, only for their initial listing. In a parallel case, the top court did rule that the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) of Sri Lanka, the Tamil Tigers, should be removed from the European Union's terrorism list.

26 July 2017:  The European Union's Court of Justice (ECJ) is set to rule today on whether Hamas, the Palestinian political organisation, should be removed from the EU's 'terror' list. In December 2014, a lower European court said Hamas should be removed from the list because the EU's decision to place it on the 'terror' sanctions list was based on information from the media and internet, and not the result of an independent investigation. The European Council, in turn, appealed the decision.

25 July 2017:  Philippines President Duterte announced this week that the so-called war on drugs which is scourging the country will continue despite international concern over grave human rights violations. Among the great alarm expressed by the international community, in October the International Criminal Courtexpressed concern over the occurrence of extrajudicial killings in the Philippines in connection with Duterte's campaign.

24 July 2017:  On Monday, prominent journalists and other staff of a Turkish opposition newspaper went on trial on terrorism charges in a case that critics of President Erdogan consider attack on free speech. Several hundred people gathered outside the central Istanbul court to protest against the prosecution of 17 writers, executives and lawyers of the Cumhuriyet newspaper.

23 July 2017:  United States Secretary of State Rex Tillerson announced the possible closing of the Office of Global Criminal Justice (OGCJ) in state department reorganisations. Human rights advocates fear closing the office would hamper efforts to combat impunity, raise awareness of atrocities committed all over the world and bring international crimes perpetrators to justice.

22 July 2017:  Amnesty International reported that Cameroon's security forces have tortured hundreds of people accused of supporting the Islamist group Boko Haram. The crimes committed may amount to war crimes. Evidence shows American military personnel visiting notorious torture chambers sites. The Cameroonian government was presented with Amnesty International report several months ago but has yet to respond to the accusations.

21 July 2017:  The European Union (EU) is rallying dozens of countries to stop the trade of torture equipment and lethal-injection drugs, which could make it harder for the United States to perform executions. It will call for an alliance against trading products used for executions and torture acts. Mongolia, which outlawed the death penalty in 2015, and Argentina, which has a similar legislation to the EU, will jointly launch the initiative with the EU in September.

20 July 2017:  Last week, the International Criminal Court ordered to review whether Laurent Gbagbo, the former Ivory Coast president, should be released from detention while the trial against him for crimes against humanity continues. Gbagbo and his former militia leader Charles Ble Goude have been charged with crimes committed during the post-election violence that broke out in Ivory Coast in 2011.

19 July 2017:  29 indigenous organizations from across South America have come together in Brazil and taken actions against governments for failing to protect the lives and lands of uncontacted peoples -a situation they say may amount to genocide. In June 2017, a conference with representatives of groups from Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Paraguay and Venezuela condemned the alarming increase of violence against indigenous peoples across the continent and described the failure to properly protect the territory of uncontacted peoples as genocide. Brazil has recently made cuts to its indigenous affairs agency, leaving uncontacted peoples dangerously exposed to violence caused and diseases carried by outsiders. The country has two genocide convictions in its courts, both for crimes against indigenous peoples.

18 July 2017:  In light of the upcoming International Criminal Court's anniversary, the Statute of which was adopted on 17 July 1998, Human Rights Watch calls for an increased support to the Court by the international community.

17 July 2017:  Atrocities in Syria and Iraq: the obstacles to combat impunity being political, not the lack of evidence, human rights lawyer says. Prosecutors in several European countries are processing investigations on alleged international crimes in Syria using universal jurisdiction legislation. Furthermore, in light of the incredible amount of available evidence, it is possible to draw a list of those allegedly responsible for the countless atrocities that have been committed so far by all parties to the conflict.

16 July 2017:  A United Nations (UN) special rapporteur has concluded that the use of torture by Sri Lankan security services is endemic. In particular, he raised concerns in regards to the draft revised anti-terror laws prepared by the government, which would leave police forces' routine use of torture to obtain confessions without being monitored or checked. The rapporteur reported that authorities use the legislation disproportionately against members of the Tamil community. He added that 80% of those most recently arrested in late 2016 complained of torture and ill-treatment following their arrest. There seems to exist an alarming climate of impunity for officials committing such criminal acts. He furthermore reported that numerous prisoners had been in detention without trial for several years.

15 July 2017:  Leopold Munyakazi, prominent Rwandan academic, has been sentenced to life imprisonment by a domestic court after being convicted of genocide. After fleeing Rwanda he sought refuge in the United States, where he taught French in Baltimore until being suspended in 2008 following an indictment issued by the Rwandan government. He was extradited to Rwanda last year. He opposed his transfer to the country and denied all charges against him.

14 July 2017:  Amnesty International said it identified a pattern of attacks by Iraqi forces and the United States-led military coalition backing them that may amount to war crimes during the fight to regain control over the city of Mosul. Islamic State's fighters are as well accused of violating international humanitarian law by inter alia deliberately endangering the lives of civilians by using them as human shields and impeding the advance of Iraqi and coalition forces. Amnesty calls for a thorough investigation into whether war crimes have indeed been committed by all parties to the conflict.

13 July 2017:  Yazidis from Iraq joined thousands of Bosnian Muslims at a commemoration on Tuesday 11 July 2017 of the 8,000 men and boys killed in 1995 at Srebrenica and called for the atrocities committed against the Yazidis by the Islamic State (ISIS) to be recognized as genocide. Tuesday's commemoration of the killings 22 years ago included the burials of 71 newly identified victims bringing the total number of those interred near the town to 6,575. More than 1,000 men and boys are still missing. Yazidis will commemorate the Sinjar massacre in August. "We have endured horrific abuses and persecution -the Bosnian Muslims at the hands of Serbs and Yazidis at the hands of ISIS- and we share the memories and recognize each other's feelings" said Hussam Abdukah, a Yazidi lawyer who is documenting ISIS crimes and involved in a peacebuilding project in northern Iraq.

12 July 2017:  A group of Swedish lawmakers filed a complaint accusing Turkish President Erdogan of genocidecrimes against humanity and war crimes in the southeast of Turkey. The complaint, filed to the Swedish International Public Prosecution Offices, names Erdogan and several ministers among whom Prime Minister Binali Yildirim. It is the first of this kind in Sweden against a head of state.

11 July 2017:  Last week, Italy made torture a crime after decades of non-compliance with its human rights obligations. However, Human Rights Watch notes how the compromise text which was approved falls short of the bar set by European and international bodies to which Italy is a member, failing to meet international law standards. The flaws rest with how the law defines the scope of the crime and its statute of limitations, determining Italy will continue to be in violation of its international obligations.

10 July 2017:  Last week, it was reported that Police from a region in the Philippines was considering issuing mandatory identification cards to thousands of Muslims living there. Authorities claimed that the policy is a counter-terrorism measures. Human Rights Watch noted how such an alarming measure would further single out Muslims in the country and violated individuals' rights to equal protection of the law, freedom of movement, and other basic rights.

9 July 2017:  The spokeswoman for the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights expressed grave concern about the arbitrary arrests and detentions of human rights defenders in Turkey on suspicion of membership to terrorist group. Among those arrested, regional director of Amnesty International Idil Eser. It is feared the activists are at a significant risk of torture and abuses.

8 July 2017:  On 5 July 2017 Italy's Chamber of Deputies approved a controversial bill outlawing torture. The bill was passed by a vote of 198 t0 35.

8 July 2017:  Last week, Poland requested the extradition from the United States of a man accused of Nazi war crimes. Michael Karkoc, 98, is a former commander of an SS-led unit responsible for burning Polish villages and killing civilians during World War II.

7 July 2017:  On July 6 2017, Pre-Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court delivered its decision finding that South Africa failed to comply with its obligations by not arresting and surrendering Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir to the Court while he was on South African territory between 13 and 15 June 2015. The Chamber however decided not to refer South Africa's non-compliance to the Assembly of State Parties or the United Nations Security Council.

7 July 2017:  The Dutch government announced that the suspects allegedly responsible for downing flight MH17 over Ukraine in 2014 will stand trial in The Netherlands. The decision was taken at the request of the countries cooperating in the Joint Investigation Team (JIT), which has been investigating the circumstances of the disaster. The countries involved are: The Netherlands, Australia, Malaysia, Belgium, Ukraine. On 17 July 2014, a Malaysian Airlines Boeing crashed in eastern Ukraine, killing all 298 passengers on board, after being shot down by a missile. For more information in English, click here. For more information in Dutch, click here.

6 July 2017:  The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), with the support of more than 100 Mexican organisations, submitted a report to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) requesting her Office to open a preliminary examination into the crimes committed in the Mexican state of Coahuila from 2009 until 2016. The report details how crimes against humanity were committed, including arbitrary detention, torture and enforced disappearance.

6 July 2017:  A decision on whether to open a formal investigation before the International Criminal Court(ICC) into potential crimes committed in Afghanistan since 2003 has been delayed. The investigation would include possible violations committed by the Afghan authorities, the United States armed forces and the Central Intelligence Agency and the Taliban and its affiliates. The Office of the Prosecutor said it received new information from the government of Afghanistan that could influence her decision.

5 July 2017:  Judge Catherine Marchi-Uhel was appointed late Monday by the United Nations Secretary General Antonio Guterres to lead the International Impartial and Independent Mechanism, a legal team that will collect and preserve evidence of international crimes committed in Syria for domestic courts or an international body to use. The Mechanism was created by a General Assembly resolution in December in efforts to tackle the climate of impunity which has been reigning in the country since the beginning of the conflict.

5 July 2017:  Tomorrow Thursday 6 July 2017 the International Criminal Court (ICC) will rule on whether South Africa violated its international law obligations by failing to arrest Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, who remains at large and in office as conflict rages in Darfur despite two arrest warrants issued in 2009 and 2010. He is charged with war crimescrimes against humanity and genocide. The landmark decision will set a precedent for co-operation between countries and the ICC.

4 July 2017:  A new report by FIDH, the International Federation for Human Rights, and its partner organisations in Burundi draws a disturbing picture of the situation in the country today, two years after the crisis broke out in April 2015 when demonstrations against the president's announcement to run for office for the third term were violently repressed. Since then, a cycle of violence has seen the death of more than 1,200 people and the fleeing of more than 400,000. There may have been between 400 and 900 victims of forced disappearance, several hundred or even thousands of people tortured, and over 10,000 people arbitrarily detained. The current repression has been characterised by genocidal dynamics and the political landscape is shrinking down to one party, the CNDD-FDD, which seems to be willing to retain power at all costs.

3 July 2017:  On Friday 30 June 2017, Myanmar said it would refuse to grant visas to three United Nations (UN) experts in charge of investigating recent violence against Muslims in the country. The UN reported in February that police officers and soldiers had allegedly killed hundreds of people of all ages, gang-raped women and girls and forced as many as 90,000 Rohingya from their homes. Those and other brutal actions were very likely to amount to crimes against humanity.

2 July 2017:  A report released by SNHR, the Syrian Network for Human Rights, documents the death toll due to torture in Syria from March 2011 until June 2017. At least 13,029 individuals have died, including 164 children and 57 women. Of those, Syrian regime forces have killed 12,920 individuals, including 161 children and 41 women. The remaining deaths are attributed to Self-Management Forces, ISIS, Fateh al Sham Front, armed opposition factions and other parties. The issue of torture being committed by both governmental and non-governmental forces involved in the conflict is not being adequately addressed and duly tackled on the international level, said the chairman of SNHR Fadel Abdul Ghany.

1 July 2017:  Fifteen years ago, on 1 July 2002, the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court came into force. Although far from realising its full potentials, the Court has shown how international criminal justice works in the fight against impunity for heinous crimes and has been a bastion of hope. States should increase their efforts to support it.

June 2017

30 June 2017:  Amnesty International denounces once again Duterte's bloody and lawless anti-drug campaign since assuming the presidency of the Philippines a year ago. No credible investigation into the widespread extrajudicial executions, which may amount to crimes against humanity, has been conducted, nor into the numerous heinous crimes and human rights violations committed. James Gomez, Director for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, said that a preliminary investigation into the mass killings by the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court may be the best option.

29 June 2017:  Banque Nationale de Paris (BNP) faces accusations of complicity in genocidewar crimes and crimes against humanity during the Rwanda genocide. It is alleged the bank participated in financing the purchase of 80 tonnes of arms that served to perpetrate crimes during the genocide and that the intentions for which the transfer was authorized could not have been doubted. Three NGOs are leading the allegations: Sherpa, Ibuka France and Collective of Civil Parties for Rwanda (CPCR). A separate claim was also filed last week against 'X' for complicity in genocide and crimes against humanity during the Rwandan genocide by the group Survie.

28 June 2017:  On Monday, the United Nations criticised a decision by a Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) military tribunal not to prosecute seven soldiers for crimes against humanity. The seven soldiers were already on trial for war crimes and other offences -including murder, mutilation and cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment- allegedly committed in the Kasai region. They are being prosecuted over a video that emerged in February showing a group of uniformed men opening fire on civilians, and then walking among at least 20 bodies. On Saturday, prosecutors in the trial, which commenced on 5 June 2017, had dropped the war crimes charges but kept the others until Monday, when however they decided not to pursue crimes against humanity charges either.

27 June 2017:  Yemen's government has opened an investigation into alleged torture and enforced disappearances by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and its allied Yemeni forces in the south of the country. A six-member committee was ordered to focus on areas recaptured from Houthi fighters and their allies. The panel has 15 days to conclude its investigations. Reports of abuses were revealed last week in two separate investigations conducted by Human Rights Watch and Associated Press. It was said that the UAE financed, armed and trained Yemeni forces that have arbitrarily detained, forcibly disappeared, tortured and abused dozens of people during security operations in the southern governorates. The revelations prompted concerns about alleged United States involvement. The war in Yemen, the poorest country in the Arab world, has killed more than 10,000 people, displaced more than three million and ruined much of the country's infrastructure. In March, the United Nations Food Programme said that nearly half of Yemen's 22 provinces were on the verge of famine, while more than 1'300 people have died of cholera since late April, in the second outbreak of the infection in less than a year.

26 June 2017:  A recount of the situation across the conflict zone in eastern Ukraine, where war crimes such as arbitrary detention, torture, enforced disappearances and extrajudicial executions have been documented. Stanislav Aseev and Igor Kozlovsky among the victims of such practices.

26 June 2017:  On Saturday, the president of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia said authorities will need to harness a spirit of reconciliation to pursue the legacy of the Tribunal in bringing justice to victims once it closes down at the end of the year. It was said the Tribunal met its responsibility to bring to justice those most responsible for the atrocities committed during the wars of the 1990s, and that now regional authorities need to carry on its work.

25 June 2017:  The British van driver suspected of attacking Muslim worshippers near a London mosque appeared in court on Friday charged with terrorism-related murder and attempted murder. The Crown Prosecution Service said it would argue that the accused "motivated by extreme political views and a personal hatred of Muslims, acted to kill, maim, injure and terrify as many people as possible" during the attack.

24 June 2017:  Khieu Samphan and Noun Chea, the most senior living members of the Khmer Rouge government in Cambodia, were given an opportunity to address the Phnom Penh chamber on Friday as the trial before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) concludes. In the occasion, Samphan, the former head of state of what was Kampuchea, used the opportunity to reject claims that the government was involved in the genocide in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979 that killed more than 2 million people. Chea declined to address the court, while his lawyer spoke on his behalf affirming Chea believed he was part of a show trial. Samphan and Chea already received life sentences in 2014 for crimes against humanity.

23 June 2017:  Amnesty International calls for the commencement of an urgent investigation into allegations of torture and arbitrary detention of prisoners held in secret detention facilities in Southern Yemen by the United Arab Emirates (UAE), its allied Yemeni forces and possibly the United States. The organisation calls for the launch of a United Nations-led investigation into the UAE's and the other States' role into setting up such a network of torture where thousands of Yemeni have disappeared. Moreover, by continuing to supply weapons to the UAE and its coalition partners which could be used to facilitate enforced disappearances, torture and serious violations on international humanitarian law in Yemen, the United States and western European countries risk to violate core human rights principles and become complicit in the commission of war crimes.

23 June 2017:  CIA torture techniques: a lawsuit filed by two former prisoners and the family of a third man who died in custody while detained in CIA's secret detention facilities against two contractors who may be accountable for the horrific techniques reveals new details about the interrogation program.

22 June 2017:  United Nations (UN) High Commissioner for Human Rights called for an independent investigation into the human rights situation in Kasai, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). He condemned the establishment of armed militia supported by the authorities and allegedly accompanied by state security forces and police. He furthermore stated that serious abuses have been committed, and that mass graves have been discovered across the province. The UN believes these mass graves were being investigated by two UN experts who were found murdered in March.

21 June 2017:  A special anti-terrorism court in India recently found six men guilty for the 1993 terrorist bombings in Mumbai where almost 300 people were killed and hundreds injured. The special court was formed under the order of the Terrorism and Disruptive Activities Act (TADA), a controversial law that has allegedly led to human rights violations.

20 June 2017:  The government of the Central African Republic (CAR) and armed groups signed a peace accord on 19 June 2017 which includes a ceasefire and political reform measures and could put an end to the conflict. The question of whether victims of atrocities and their families will see justice however remains unanswered, Human Rights Watch notes, contending that two courts, the International Criminal Court and the Special Criminal Court could provide for the opportunity to bring victims justice and lasting peace.

19 June 2017:  On Monday 19 June 2017, proceedings resumed in the case of a former Rwandan minister convicted of involvement in the genocide. The United Nations Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals announced that it will review the conviction of Augustin Ngirabatware, sentenced on appeal to 30 years in 2014 for inciting, instigating, aiding and abetting genocide as over 800'000 ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed by Hutu extremists. Ngirabatware last year filed a request for review of his convictions, saying new evidence that came to light after his conviction could exonerate him. The case was stalled after United Nations judge Aydin Sefa Akay was detained last year in Turkey, his native country, in the aftermath of the failed coup. He was convicted last week of membership to a terrorist organization and sentenced to seven and a half years' imprisonment, but released pending appeal. He denies the allegations.

18 June 2017:  On 13 June 2017, two former Serbian policemen went on trial before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia for the second time over their alleged involvement in the ethnic cleansing that took place during the Balkan conflicts in to 1990s. The initial trial of Jovica Stanisic, former head of Serbia's State Security Service and Franko Simatovic, his alleged right-hand man, resulted in their acquittal in 2013, but an appeals judge ordered their retrial.

17 June 2017:  On 15 June 2017, Facebook offered additional insight on its efforts to remove terrorism content, a response to political pressure in Europe to militant groups using the platform for propaganda and recruiting. It revealed it ramped up use of artificial intelligence such as image matching and language understanding to identify and remove content quickly. Facebook and other social media have been pressured by governments to do more to remove militant content and hate speech, and their broad legal protections against liability for their users' content may become subject to stricter limitations.

16 June 2017:  On 14 June 2017, the International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor called for the immediate arrest and surrender of suspects Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi and Al-Tuhamy Mohamed Khaled. Latest media reporting alleged that Mr Gaddafi was released from custody of the Abu-Bakr al-Siddiq Brigade of Zintan, Libya. The Prosecutor announced of being currently verifying the reports and taking the necessary steps to determine the suspect's whereabouts.

15 June 2017:  Nigerian military rejected a call for senior army officers to be investigated for possible war crimes in the fight against Boko Haram Islamists. Amnesty International named six serving or retired army officers whom it said should be probed to establish whether they were responsible for murder, torture and disappearances. It alleged that more than 1,200 people have been extra-judicially killed and thousands more arbitrarily arrested during the conflict. The army chief of civilian-military affairs dismissed the accusations saying a report showed there was no evidence against any of the commanders. Similar and separate claims were made in the past and by other human rights groups, and they have all typically been dismissed. Amnesty International called for a presidential commission of inquiry into the allegations and for the report dismissing the accusations to be made public.

14 June 2017:  The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) last week renewed her calls to the United Nations (UN) Security Council and the international community to support her office's efforts in tackling and pursuing justice for human rights violations in Darfur, Sudan. She particularly urged all UN Member States, especially those that are party to the Rome Statute, to arrest and surrender suspects of international crimes committed in Sudan, including President Omar Al Bashir. She stressed that accountability is a pre-requisite for sustainable peace in Darfur.

13 June 2017:  Amriyev, torture survivor arbitrarily detained in Belarus and wanted by Chechnya authorities, has been unlawfully handed over to Russia notwithstanding human rights groups concerns for his life and allegations that the charges against him are spurious. Amnesty International called on June 9 on Russian authorities to release him and plead under no circumstances should his life be placed at further risk by surrendering him to Chechnya.

12 June 2017:  Belarusian authorities have detained a Chechen man seeking to avoid being returned to Chechnya, where he says he was tortured by police in the past, and are preparing to hand him over to Russia. Amriyev reported in 2013 to have been kidnapped by police authorities in Chechnya who tortured him for two days, hanging him in handcuffs and subjecting him to electric shocks. It is feared he could face abuse, torture, or even death if he is returned to Chechnya, where he is wanted on suspicion of using forged documents.

11 June 2017:  On 8 June 2017, European police and naval chiefs called for migrant trafficking as the one currently taking place in Libya to be declared a crime against humanity. They said the move would both draw attention to the gravity of the crimes that authorities are trying to stop and would make it easier to do so. Europol's Robert Crepinko said it was time to redefine the nature of traffickers' actions to better reflect their tragic impact. More than 5,000 migrants died in the Mediterranean last year and at least as many people or more may have died in the Sahara.

10 June 2017:  A lawsuit against the psychologists behind the CIA's interrogation techniques used in the war on terror was filed last month by a Guantanamo Bay detainee in order to compel the psychologists to provide information to Polish authorities investigating a CIA black site in the country. The lawsuit contains information as to what it describes as the torture of Abu Zubaydah, who was held in the CIA secret detention facility in Poland in 2002 and 2003, and who has been in Guantanamo Bay since 2006. The lawsuit says James Elmer Mitchell and John "Bruce" Jessen, because of their role in the interrogation program and their presence at the site, have information relevant to the investigation being conducted by the Polish authorities. Mitchell and Jessen's contract was terminated in 2009 and a United States Senate investigation in 2014 found that their techniques produced no useful intelligence. The American Civil Liberties Union filed a lawsuit against the psychologists in 2015 on behalf of Suleiman Abdullah Salim, Mohamed Ahemd Ben Soud and the estate of Gul Rahman, who died in custody. The men contend they were tortured using techniques Mitchell and Jessen designed. A trial is set for early September.

9 June 2017:  On 7 June 2017, survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide received compensation paid by convict Claver Berinkindi, currently serving a life sentence in Sweden for murder, incitement to murder, attempted murder and abduction. Berinkindi left Rwanda during the genocide and reached Sweden in 2002, where he applied for refugee status. He obtained citizenship in 2012 and was arrested in 2014. He is the second Rwandan man to be sentenced to life by a Swedish court.

8 June 2017:  The maritime sector being rocked by a spike in piracy in recent months, there is the need to address the mental health effects on those who suffer piracy first-hand. An interview with the regional director for South Asia at the Maritime Piracy Humanitarian Response Programme (MPHRP) explains more.

7 June 2017:  Bosnia's Serb Republic leader on Tuesday banned any teaching about the siege of Sarajevo and genocide in Srebrenica, denying for the first time that Bosnian Serb forces besieged and attacked people in the capital for years during the 1990s war. In 1995, more than 8,000 Muslim Bosniaks were massacred in Srebrenica, the atrocity amounting to genocide. In the siege of Sarajevo, hundreds of thousands of people were bombed and shot at, kept without food, water and electricity for nearly four years; more than 11,000 people died, including 1,100 children.

6 June 2017:  The biggest diplomatic crisis in years has hit the Gulf after Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Bahrain cut ties with Qatar, accusing it of being the cause of destabilisation in the region due to its alleged support for Islamist groups. The countries said they would halt all land, air and sea traffic with Qatar, expel its diplomats and order Qatari citizens to leave the Gulf states within 14 days. Since Qatar relies heavily on imports from its neighbours, food shortages are feared after Saudi Arabia closed its sole land border. Saudi Arabia declared it cut diplomatic ties due to Qatar's "embrace of various terrorist and sectarian groups aimed at destabilising the region", while Egypt said that "all attempts to stop it from supporting terrorist groups failed". The United States Secretary of States, Rex Tillerson, said the move would not affect counter-terrorism efforts. Since 2014, Qatar has repeatedly denied that it funds extremist groups.

5 June 2017:  The United States (US) Senate Foreign Relations Committee advanced a bipartisan bill introduced in April, the Syrian War Crimes Accountability Act of 2017, which would strengthen US support for justice in Syria. The new bill requests the State Department to report on how the US is promoting accountability in Syria, which could help integrate justice for war crimes into US policy. The Committee adopted amendments to ensure US support for justice is comprehensive, better balanced and more impartial, but is still does not cover all parties involved in the war. The bill needs to pass the full Senate and the House to become law. It is seen as a small but meaningful step towards justice in the Syrian conflict.

4 June 2017:  Fifty years after Israel occupied the West Bank and Gaza Strip at least five categories of major violations of international human rights and humanitarian law taking place during the occupation have identified, said Human Rights Watch (HRW). The crimes include: unlawful killings, forced displacement, abusive detention, the closure of the Gaza Strip and other unjustified restrictions on movement, and the development of settlements along with the accompanying discriminatory policies disadvantaging Palestinians. Many of Israel's abusive practices have been carried out in the name of security. Palestinians armed groups have also carried out a number of attacks in violation of international humanitarian law.

3 June 2017:  On 1 June 2017, the United Kingdom Metropolitan Police's War Crimes Unit arrested Reeves Taylor, former wife of imprisoned ex Liberian President Charles Taylor. She was subsequently charged with torture. She is alleged to have committed crimes while working with the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), group led by her former husband during Liberia's brutal civil war. This is the third arrest by European authorities of a suspect associated with crimes committed during the conflict: commander Martina Johnson was arrested in Belgium in 2014, and Alieu Kosiah, commander from the opposing United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy, was arrested in Switzerland in 2014.

2 June 2017:  On Thursday, an Austrian man accused of committing war crimes in eastern Ukraine has been released from custody in his home country after credibly denying the allegations against him. The investigation remains open but the suspect is now free to travel. He was accused to have killed combatants or civilians in danger or injured while fighting alongside Ukrainian forces against pro-Russian separatists.

1 June 2017:  A new report released on Tuesday 30 April 2017 by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) claims that human rights violations within the Central African Republic (CAR) may amount to war crimes. The report maps 13 years of violence in the country, from 2003 since 2015, listing 620 incidents and concluding that the majority of such incidents constitute serious international human rights violations and many could also be deemed war crimes.

May 2017

31 May 2017:  Poland has extradited to Austria a 25-year-old Austrian man, identified as Benjamin F., suspected of war crimes after he allegedly killed civilians and surrendered enemy troops while fighting for Ukrainian forces, authorities said on Tuesday. More than 10,000 people have died since the hostilities broke out in Ukraine in April 2014.

30 May 2017:  Zoran Vukotic, a Kosovo Serb extradited from Montenegro last year and charged with war crimes against ethnic Albanian civilians in 1999, pleaded not guilty at the first hearing on Monday in Mitrovica Basic Court.

29 May 2017:  A moving recount of the atrocious suffering that Hellenah Mukansigaye, a victim of rape during the 1994 Rwandan genocide, went through during and in the aftermath of the conflict. A story of despair, perseverance and faith.

28 May 2017:  Nepali political parties and security forces accused of war crimes during the country's decade-long civil war are not ensuring efforts to bring justice to victims. More than 17,000 people were killed and more than 1,300 disappeared during the conflict between governmental forces and Maoist rebels. While the war ended more than a decade ago, families and victims are still waiting to find out what happened to their loved ones and who is responsible for their suffering. A study by the International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) found there was a widespread misunderstanding of transitional justice in Nepal.

27 May 2017:  Iraq's Interior Ministry has launched an investigations into allegations of human rights violations perpetrated by its forces against the Islamic State (IS) in Mosul. The allegations were first reported by German Der Spiegel magazine, claiming that an Iraqi photographer embedded with the police unit had witnessed killing, torture and rape of IS suspects.

26 May 2017:  Myanmar's military rejected allegations by the United Nations (UN) of the commission of atrocities during the crackdown on Rohingya Muslims last year, which forced approximately 65,000 Rohingya to flee to Bangladesh as the military searched for a handful of insurgents who killed nine policemen in attacks on border posts between Myanmar and Bangladesh in Rakhine state. The military said it found the allegations to be false, after reportedly interviewing 3,000 villagers and 184 military officers and troops. The UN report in February, compiled from interviews with those who fled, accused the military of abuses including gang-rapes, savage beatings and murder. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) said the attacks amount very likely to crimes against humanity.

25 May 2017:  On 23 May 2017, the second European Union (EU) Day against Impunity for genocidecrimes against humanity and war crimes was held. The event's emphasis was on stepping up collective action and cooperation within the EU when fighting impunity.

24 May 2017:  The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued a statement regarding the alarming situation in the Central African Republic (CAR), urging the violence to stop. The current situation appears extremely precarious, with allegations of serious crimes committed against civilians, peacekeepers and humanitarian workers. The reported crimes may fall under ICC jurisdiction. She called on all individuals and groups in the CAR engaged in violence, including those who appear to be linked to the anti-Balaka and ex-Seleka groups, to desist.

24 May 2017:  On Tuesday 23 May 2017 Somali pirates hijacked an Iranian fishing vessel to use it as the mother ship to attack other, more valuable ships. Local fishermen have been angered by the return of unlicensed international fishing vessels to Somali waters. The region is also suffering from a severe drought that threatens to push the nation back into famine. The attack comes as part of an upsurge in piracy following years of relative calm.
 

23 May 2017:  Human Rights Watch has called on those participating in the NATO summit in Brussels on Thursday to ensure that torture has no place in the counter-terrorism efforts that are high on the summit's agenda. This is essential in a context where European leaders are involved in the discussion concerning a shared approach to counter-terrorism policy with a United States President who, during his election campaign, has promised to resume torture practices such as waterboarding and worse. The European Court of Human Rights has found in a series of cases that European intelligence agents enabled the CIA to abduct US national security suspects from Europe, detain and torture them in secret detention centres set up in and outside Europe. Notwithstanding developments, there has never been full accountability. It is vital for European leaders to stand against resuming torture practices, secret detention centres and extraordinary rendition, and make clear to the Trump administration that there would be negative consequences if such inhumane practices were to be adopted again.

23 May 2017:  On Monday, a German court put on trial for war crimes a man suspected to be a former Syrian rebel commander fighting for a group linked to the Free Syrian Army (FSA). Identified as 42-year-old Ibrahim Al F., the man is accused of personally committing acts of torture while allegedly commanding a 150-strong neighbourhood militia in Aleppo said to have been looting homes and capturing and mistreating civilians. He was arrested in April 2016 after one of his alleged victims recognised him in Germany, and will face life imprisonment if convicted. The trial is set to run at least until September.

22 May 2017:  The African Union has sought the international community's support in the Central African Republic (CAR) in order to fight Joseph Kony after the United States and Uganda withdrew their troops from tracking down Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) members. The African Union's Peace and Security Council (PSC) said on Friday that the LRA still poses a threat.

21 May 2017:  Since 2011, the Syrian Accountability Project (SAP) at Syracuse University has been documenting the unfolding of crimes in Syria, in a effort to build a trial package from a neutral perspective and collect evidence to be used for domestic or international prosecutions in the future. SAP was created by David Crane, founding Chief Prosecutor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

20 May 2017:  An interview with the Romeo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative raises awareness of the involvement of children in piracy: its scale, how this is intertwined with terrorism, and the reasons why children are chosen over adults.

19 May 2017:  A federal judge on Thursday dismissed two lawsuits seeking to hold Facebook Inc. liable for supporting terrorist groups by letting them use its social media platform to further their goals. A lawsuit by relatives of American victims of Hamas attacks was dismissed due to the fact the federal Communications Decency Act regulating internet content immunizes Facebook from liability. A lawsuit by approximately 20,000 Israeli citizens who feared harm from future violence was also dismissed.

18 May 2017:  A Rwandan man arrested in Denmark last week over an arrest warrant on his role in the 1994 genocide has been remanded on May 18, 2017 by a Danish Court until June 15, 2017. The suspect was allegedly part of a group of 200 individuals that attacked a university where over 1,000 people were killed, and was allegedly leading militiamen in an attack against a church where more than 3,000 had sought refuge.


17 May 2017:  Uganda's President Museveni has written to the country's security and law enforcement chiefs warning that torture should be stopped, if happening, since it does not work in the fight against crime. The President reacted to the pressure exercised by media reports alleging the perpetration of torture practices by enforcement agencies.

16 May 2017:  The Supreme Court of Bangladesh on Monday upheld the conviction of Delwar Hossain Sayeedi, an Islamist preacher sentenced to life imprisonment for his involvement in the 1971 liberation war. Sayeedi was charged for a number of crimes in connection to his role supporting the Pakistani army during the war, ranging from kidnapping and rape to forced religious conversion. The judgment was delivered rejecting the pleas from both sides, the state seeking a death sentence, while the defence seeking an acquittal. In 2009, the country established the International Crimes Tribunal, charged with detaining, prosecuting and punishing those responsible for committing genocidecrimes against humanity and war crimes committed in the 1971 conflict.

15 May 2017:  Last week, Uganda's police were accused of torturing suspects to illicit confessions. Over the last 15 years, Human Rights Watch has interviewed hundreds of Ugandans who say they were tortured by police, specifically by a string of units which have changed name and location over time, but whose brutality inexorably repeats itself.

14 May 2017:  The United Nations (UN) Committee against Torture called on Bahrain on May 12, 2017, to release prominent activist Nabeel Rajab from more than nine months of solitary confinement and investigate widespread allegations of ill-treatment and torture of detainees. The UN experts cited continued, numerous and consistent allegations of widespread torture and ill-treatment of persons deprived of their liberty in all places of detention in Bahrain. A climate of impunity seems to be prevailing. The panel voiced concerns at reports of coerced confessions obtained under torture, including those of three men executed in January and two men facing the death penalty, Mohammed Ramadhan and Hussain Ali Moosa.

13 May 2017:  During the trial of Hissene Habre, former President of Chad, horrific accounts of rape and sexual slavery were heard. Among such recounts, Khadidia Zidane explained how, almost 30 years earlier, Habre had summoned her from prison to the presidential palace and raped her. Habre was convicted on May 30, 2016, of crimes against humanitywar crimes and torture, including rape and sexual slavery. Last month, all convictions were upheld but one: Habre was in fact acquitted or raping Zidane. The appeals court took pains to emphasise that the acquittal was a procedural matter and did not reflect on Zidane's credibility. Although the appeals decision was overall seen as a victory, Habre's rape acquittal should not be allowed to go unnoticed. It should stand to remind us of the challenges that survivors of sexual violence face when considering the disclosure of their experience, and of the reforms needed in a legal process that often fails to support victims in coming forward and revealing the suffering they were subject to.

12 May 2017:  Amnesty International and civil society organisations in Central African Republic (CAR) launched on Wednesday a national campaign urging authorities in CAR to tackle a deeply rooted culture of impunity which has prevented thousands of victims of human rights abuses and international crimes from receiving justice. The campaign calls on authorities to commit to a tougher stance against impunity and for CAR's technical and financial partners to support the government's efforts, including by funding the country's new Special Criminal Court.

11 May 2017:  A 27-year-old man was sentenced to life imprisonment by a court in Austria after being found guilty of killing 20 people in Syria. The man, accused of shooting unarmed or wounded Syrian soldiers following a battle in the city of Homs, was arrested in western Austria in June. Arrived as an asylum-seeker in the country, it appears he had told others at a refugee shelter that he had been involved in the commission of the crime when he was fighting with an Islamist rebel group called the Farouq Brigade, linked to the Free Syrian Army. He is expected to appeal the conviction.

10 May 2017:  The International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda expressed great alarm in a statement on Monday at the inhumane detention conditions of thousands of migrants in Libya. She said her Office was examining whether an investigation could be opened into crimes against them. According to the International Organization for Migration, 20'000 migrants are held by criminal groups in irregular detention centers in Libya, while growing numbers of them are traded in slave markets before being held for ransom, forced labour, sexual exploitation. ICC Prosecutor therefore told the United Nations Security Council that her office continues to collect and analyse information relating to serious and widespread crimes allegedly committed against migrants attempting to transit through Libya.

9 May 2017:  United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism Ben Emmerson said last week that Saudi Arabia's anti-terrorism laws are too broad and a threat to individual rights. Emmerson also expressed concern about the reported prosecution of writers and activists for their non-violent actions; he urged the government to establish an independent review mechanism to re-examine those prosecuted for political expression. Emmerson also expressed concerns about Saudi Arabia's failure to adequately investigate its counter-terrorism actions in Yemen, which the UN estimate are responsible for 60% of Yemeni civilian casualties.

8 May 2017:  Stories of those who undertake their quest to reach Europe: how migrants who survive the Sahara face torture and gross abuses in Libya. Libya, via Niger, is the only viable passage left to Europe for West African asylum seekers after the border controls in routes through the Canary Islands, Algeria and Morocco were increased in recent years. Nearly 300'000 people crossed the desert from Niger to Libya between February and December 2016, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) reported. The country is a lawless state were armed groups compete for land and resources, Islamic State militants are present in parts of the territory and large weapons and people-smuggling networks operate with impunity. Asylum seekers surviving the journey until there are faced with a new hell once in the country.

8 May 2017:  Legal experts on Thursday said there was growing evidence to prove atrocities committed by Islamic State (IS) against Iraq's Yazidi minority, including sexual slavery and mass killings, legally constitute genocide. In August 2014, IS militants began an assault on the Yazidi religious community's heartland in Sinjar, northern Iraq, home to approximately 400'000 Yazidis, a religious group whose beliefs combine elements of several ancient Middle Eastern religions. IS considers them devil-worshippers. United Nations investigators estimate that more than 5'000 Yazidis have been slaughtered and some 7'000 women forced into sexual slavery.

7 May 2017:  Peru's national prosecutors' office said on Friday it has opened an investigation into allegations of crimes against humanity related to the military's fight against leftist guerrillas in the 1990s, in a case involving former President Ollanta Humala. The investigation comes as testimony from two new witnesses suggests that soldiers under Humala's command at the Madre Mia military base tortured and murdered civilians.

6 May 2017:  Switzerland said on Wednesday it has extended the detention of former Gambian interior minister Ousman Sonko after 'progress' in a crimes against humanity probe. Sonko was a top lieutenant of Gambia's fallen dictator Yahya Jammeh. Sonko has been accused of overseeing and committing torture while heading the interior ministry from 2006 to 2016. He fled to Sweden before arriving in Switzerland in November. Swiss authorities arrested Sonko in January and have since interviewed witnesses, seized documents and asked for additional evidence from the new government led by Adama Barrow. Sonko's arrest followed a criminal complaint filed on behalf on his alleged victims by the civil society group TRIAL International.

5 May 2017:  Tortured Chechen homosexual men recount the agony they were subject to. Chechen officials deny not only the reported torture of homosexuals, but sometimes their very existence.

4 May 2017:  Powerful recount of the violence against Rohingya in Myanmar. Reuters reports that the attack on the village of Dar Gvi Zar, on November 12 and 13, claimed dozens of lives. The killings marked the start of a two-week military onslaught across about 10 Rohingya villages in northwest Rakhine State. Rohingya elders estimate some 600 people were killed. A United Nations report from February said the likely toll was hundreds. At least 1'500 homes were destroyed, according to Human Rights Watch. Countless women were raped, eyewitnesses, doctors and aid workers said. It was the latest round of ethnic bloodletting in Myanmar, a majority Buddhist country where the roughly one million Muslim Rohingya are marginalised, often living in camps, with not access to healthcare and education, and uprooted and killed in pogroms. The article pieces together how events unfolded drawing from interviews with Rohingya refugees, diplomats, aid workers and Myanmar government officials. The army has denied there were widespread abuses and said it was carrying out a legitimate counterinsurgency operation. As thousands of Rohingya were fleeing across the border to Bangladesh, Aung Suu Kyi was not in the country.

4 May 2017:  New evidence supports the conclusion that Syrian government forces have used nerve agents on at least four occasions in recent months: on April 4, 2017, in a chemical attack on Khan Sheikhoun that killed at least 92 people, and on three other occasions in December 2016 and March 2017, Human Rights Watch said in a report released on May 1st, 2017. These attacks are part of a broader pattern of Syrian government forces' use of chemical weapons fulfilling the features required for the acts to be characterised as crimes against humanity.

3 May 2017:  Australian extremist Islamic militants are using travel and retail gift cards to fund terrorism in the war town Middle East. The federal intelligence agency AUSTRAC has recently identified 12 cases of gift cards allegedly being used to fund terrorism, with transactions of up to $170'000 being made in the likes of Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan. The intelligence agency cited another 66 suspicious money transfers in nations that are recognised as transit areas for terrorism. It seems cards are being used by terrorists worldwide.

2 May 2017: There is division among people in northern Uganda on whether the trial of former Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) commander Dominic Ongwen is justified. Proponents who say the trial is fair cite various reasons, among them being the gravity of the crimes allegedly committed, the need to ensure justice for victims, and the fact Ongwen did not make any attempts to escape the LRA and benefit from an amnesty program in place at the time. On the other hand, many people still hold to the view that Ongwen's trial is unfair. They cite reasons ranging from his abduction and indoctrination into the LRA at a young age, to the fact that the LRA as an organisation should be the one to blame for the crimes committed, and that many other senior LRA commander who some believe have committed worse crime than Ongwen have not been held accountable.


1 May 2017:  Piracy from a different perspective. A story of how poverty and the lack of the rule of law may have forced young Somali fishermen to become pirates in order to fight foreign ships illegally fishing off the coasts of the country and destroying the local way of life and the people's possibilities of subsistence.

1 May 2017:  Argentine national Teodoro Anibal Gauto, living in Haifa and holding Israeli citizenship, will not be extradited. He is accused in Argentina of the commission of crimes against humanity during the country's military dictatorship from 1976 until 1983; he would have served at La Cacha, a secret detention center used by the military regime. Israel decided not to revoke Gauto's citizenship in light of the fact that during his 14 years in the country he has not committed any crimes.

1 May 2017:  An Austrian man suspected of war crimes in the conflict in eastern Ukraine between Ukrainian forces and pro-Russian separatists in eastern Ukraine was arrested in Poland on Sunday. A spokesperson of the prosecutor's office said the man is accused of killing soldiers involved in fighting at the Donetsk airport who had surrendered and/or civilians. Russia annexed Crimea in March 2014, and fighting broke out in eastern Ukraine the following month between pro-Russian rebels and Ukrainian government forces, a conflict in which close to 10'000 people have been killed.

April 2017

30 April 2017:  On Thursday, a French court refused an extradition request for former Kosovo Prime Minister Haradinaj, facing war crimes charges in Serbia. The suspect was released shortly thereafter and parties were given five days to appeal. Haradinaj was a senior commander of the Kosovo Liberation Army, the ethnic Albanian guerrilla force opposing Misolevic during the Kosovo war. He was tried twice and acquitted of 37 charged of war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.

29 April 2017:  Eric Olsen, CEO of cement manufacturer LafargeHolcim, announced on Monday that he will resign after the discovery that the business paid armed groups in Syria to prevent a factory from closing. French prosecutors are investigating the payments and human rights groups filed a complaint in a domestic French court against the company for allegedly been complicit in financing the Islamic State and in war crimes. In February, France approved a law to hold parent corporations liable for subsidiary human rights violations.

28 April 2017:  On Monday, a Cameroonian military tribunal sentenced a journalist to 10 years in prison on terrorism charges, including for failing to report acts of terrorism to the authorities. The trial has drawn criticisms from human rights groups. Ahmed Abba, journalist for Radio France International, was convicted on the basis of evidence showing he had been in contact with Boko Haram militants and that he was aware of future attacks. Since his arrest in 2015, he has denied the charges. Amnesty International said that Abba's conviction, furthermore after being subject to torture and an unfair trial, is a clear evidence that Cameroon's military courts are not competent to try civilians and should not have jurisdiction in these cases. Abba's lawyer said he would appeal.

28 April 2017:  French intelligence services said they have scientific proof that the Syrian regime was responsible for a suspected chemical attack that killed 87 people. On April 4, 2017, the rebel-held Khan Sheikhun was attacked. 31 children were among the dead. Samples taken at the scene showed that sarin gas was used and that this was produced by the Syrian regime. The substance used contains hexamine, a component which was also found in a gas attack in northwest Syria in 2013.

27 April 2017:  The Appeals Chamber of the Extraordinary African Chambers confirmed ex-Chadian dictator Hissène Habre's sentence to life imprisonment. Habre had been convicted on May 30, 2016 for the commission of crimes against humanitywar crimes and torture, including sexual violence and rape. The Appeals Chamber also decided on an appeal by lawyers representing the victims on the reparations awarded to victims on July 29, 2016.

26 April 2017:  On Monday, lawyer Jude Josue Sabio asked the International Criminal Court in The Hague to charge President Duterte and 11 other Philippine officials with mass murder and crimes against humanity in the killings of thousands of people over three decades. He contends Duterte is the mastermind of a campaign that has killed more than 9'400 people since 1988, when Mr Duterte was first elected mayor of Davao City in the southern Philippines. Mr Sabio represents two men who say they were paid assassins for Mr Duterte when he was mayor of Davao City, but filed the case on his own.

25 April 2017:  On April 24, 2017, the International Criminal Court (ICC) unsealed the warrant of arrest for Al-Tuhamy Mohamed Khaled allegedly responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity in the context of the situation in Libya in 2011. The warrant of arrest was issued under seal on April 18, 2013. Mr Al-Tuhamy is charged with four crimes against humanity and with three war crimes. The warrant was unsealed upon the Prosecution's request to do so since reclassifying it as public may facilitate the suspect's arrest and surrender and foster support and cooperation from the international community.

24 April 2017:  The UK Ministry of Justice announced on Friday plans to separate 28 'extremists' from the main stream prison population by placing them in one of three separation centers. The prisoners who will be subject to the separation are those involved in planning terrorism or are considered to pose a risk to national security. The centers are deemed necessary to combat the raise of extremism in prison. Prisoners in such centers will undergo a review by experts every three months; they can be returned to the general prison population if it is determined that their risk can be effectively managed in prisons. The decision has been subject to critics.

23 April 2017:  Police arrested a 30-year-old man on Wednesday on suspicion of being concerned in the commission, preparation or instigation of acts of terrorism. Ha was detained under the Terrorism Act 2000. On Saturday, a second man was arrested as part of an investigation in London by counter-terrorism officers.

23 April 2017:  An international human rights commission has accused Brazil of failing to obey its own constitution and ring-fence ancient tribal territories in a landmark court case that pits the state against indigenous people. Brazil could be forced to pay damages if it loses the trial in the Inter-American Court of Human Rights which is hearing evidence from both sides in Guatemala. The case seeks to end a dispute over land which the indigenous Xucuru people say has dragged on for decades, costing it lives and eroding an ancient way of life. It is the first time the Brazilian state stands accused of indigenous rights violations at an international court.

22 April 2017:  Human Rights Watch wrote to Gambia's Attorney General and Minister of Justice on April 21, 2017, welcoming the important steps the government of President Adama Barrow has already taken to end the impunity that underpinned Jammeh's era. The organisation shared its recommendations to ensure fair, credible accountability for past violations in Gambia after interviewing dozens of torture survivors, former detainees an family members of Gambians killed or forcibly disappeared during the Jammeh's time in power, including people targeted as long as 1996 and as recently as January 2017.

22 April 2017:  The Spokesperson for the European Naval Force (EU NAVFOR), which operates off the Somali coast to deter piracy along the Indian Ocean coastline and in the Gulf of Aden, said pirates are returning to sea due to the intensified insecurity in recent months. The EU NAVFOR works with China's PLA Navy and other partners, among which Somali authorities, to defeat acts of piracy in the area. The EU NAVFOR's mandate has been extended to 2018 by the EU last December.

21 April 2017:  The Court of Appeal in 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands, sentenced 74-year old Guus K. to a prison term of 19 years after finding him accessory to war crimes committed by the armed forces of Charles Taylor in Liberia and the Republic of Guinea between 2000 and 2003. The man also provided weapons to the regime, violating the arms embargo imposed by the United Nations. For the English press release, see here.

21 April 2017:  On Thursday, Rwanda's High Court sentenced to life imprisonment Bernard Mungyagishari, accused of leading and coordinating attacks on Tutsis in 1994. The man, who headed a government-allied militia known as the Interahamwe, in Rwanda's west, was convicted of crimes of genocide and crimes against humanity. Mungyagishari's lawyers said they would appeal. An estimated 800'000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were killed during the genocide in just about 100 days.

21 April 2017:  The European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) said on Thursday that a police reservist, identified as Z.V., was charged with war crimes against the civilian population while serving as a police officer and at a detention camp in northern Kosovo. The crimes includes "brutal and unlawful killings, inhuman treatment causing immense suffering, application of measures of intimidation and terror, property confiscation, pillaging and stealing of property".

20 April 2017:  Activists are working to evacuate LGBT+ individuals from Chechnya as international pressure intensifies over reports of mass arrests and human rights violations targeting gay men. The Russia LGBT Network, an NGO based in the country, says it considers the alleged arrests, torturing and honour killing to amount to crimes against humanity.

19 April 2017: The Holocaust files kept by the United Nations War Crimes Commission (UNWCC) have been made publicly available, potentially debunking many assumptions about the Nazi genocide of the European Jews. The files document how war crimes were handled by the Allies between 1943 and 1949, and include lists of alleged war criminals, files of charges brought against them, minutes of meetings, reports, correspondence, trial transcripts and other related materials. The Wiener Library in London announced this week that it is making 900 gigabytes of data -copied as PDFs from originals kept at the United Nations headquarters in New York- publicly available this Friday, April 21.

18 April 2017: UK Attorney General (AG) in bid to block case against Tony Blair over Iraq war. Jeremy Wright QC argues crime of aggression does not exist in English law, even though his predecessor reportedly claimed otherwise. The AG is going to court to demand the rejection of an attempt to prosecute Tony Blair over the Iraq war. The private prosecution seeks the trial in a British court of Tony Blair, the foreign secretary Jack Straw and Lord Goldsmith, the AG at the time. It seeks their conviction for the crime of aggression and is based on the findings of last year's Chilcot report into the British decision to join the invasion of Iraq under the false pretext that the Hussein regime had weapons of mass destruction.

17 April 2017: For several weeks now, a brutal campaign against LGBT people has been sweeping through Chechnya. Law enforcement and security agency officials under control of the head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov, have rounded up dozens of men on suspicion of being gay, torturing and humiliating the victims. Some of the men have forcibly disappeared; others were returned to their families barely alive from beatings. At least three men apparently have died since the brutal campaign began.

16 April 2017: The International Criminal Court (ICC) has launched an interactive free SMS platform designed to create awareness and engage local communities in the ongoing Dominic Ongwen case. The platform will enable subscribers to receive and respond in three languages, Acholi, Ateso and English to regular public information at no cost. It will give victims and communities affected by the crimes alleged, and the general population of Uganda, the opportunity to follow the proceedings before the Court. It was developed in cooperation with the Canadian NGO 'Peace Geeks' with the aim to deepen the dialogue between Ugandan population and the representatives of the ICC engaged in outreach initiatives since 2006.

15 April 2017: Scotland Yard is examining allegations of war crimes by Saudi Arabia in Yemen. The Metropolitan police confirmed that their war crimes unit was assess